CPCS A56 Dump Truck Articulated Chassis Course

1. Introduction

1.2 Course Objectives * To provide thorough theory and practical training in operating an Articulated Dump Truck, to enable the candidate to competently and safely carry out the role and pass the CPCS Theory and Practical Tests. * Have a good understanding of the A56 Dump Truck and be able to locate and identify the major components. * Understand differing forms of stability and the effect of various gradients. * Be able to carry out minor adjustments and routine servicing procedures. * Understand the effect of the machine’s movement when digging and loading, when the truck is working on adverse ground conditions. * Be able to provide loading and working operations on differing site conditions to the required levels, with maximum safety and minimum damage to the machine and avoid risk to personnel on site or other. * Have an understanding to a level that allows a candidate to adopt a safe system of work in different sectors of the construction industry. E.g. power station, road/rail, terminal reclamation etc. * Have an understanding of the capabilities of an ADT, in order to compare articulated haulers when loading and hauling on a haul road.

The CPCS A56 Dump Truck Articulated Chassis course is designed to provide candidates with a combination of classroom-based and practical training. This articulated dump truck course will give candidates a full understanding of the articulated dump truck, enabling them to prepare and operate it safely for the CPCS A56 Articulated Dump Truck Theory Test and the CPCS A56 articulated dump truck practical test. This articulated dump truck course is suitable for anyone who uses or will be using an articulated dump truck in the future. This articulated dump truck training course is of 3-5 days duration, dependent on the experience of the candidates. This articulated dump truck course takes place at one of the CPCS accredited test centres around the UK and is theory-based around the Health & Safety test and CPCS Theory Test, unless other arrangements have been made. The CPCS card is a requirement to work on many construction sites, this articulated dump truck course can be used to achieve this.

1.1 Course Overview

This course is designed to provide candidates with the essential knowledge and skills required to operate the forward tipping dumper in a safe and competent manner. This CPCS A56 course is suitable for anyone who will be working with a dumper, whether novice or experienced operators. Candidates will have the opportunity to refresh their skills and keep up to date with current best practice. They will also have one day to one week’s continuous professional development prior to testing in which to hone their skills further. Duration of training will depend on the experience of the candidates. Experienced Worker Assessments (EWA) may be available to those who can meet the criteria. See the CPCS website for further detail on EWA. This is not a test and training course, it is purely a training course designed to provide candidates with the underpinning knowledge and skills required and to prepare them for the CPCS technical tests. Call us for availability.

1.2 Course Objectives

Understand the need as a plant operator to lift and move material from one point to another. Understand the requirement for construction plant operators to prove their competence. Understand the importance of proper pre-use and post-use checks (visual and operational) and servicing. Understand the need to establish the weight of the load, the load’s position in the dumper, and the ground conditions. Understand the need for safe and efficient operation of the dumper, including the effects of the slope of the ground over which it is traveling. Understand the need to travel the dumper over differing types of terrain. Understand for forward tip dumpers the need for cut or fill positions and stockpile materials. Understand the need for a forward tipping dumper to be driven safely to a location for a full discharge to be conducted.

1.3 Target Audience

The target audience for the training course is plant operators and persons who are looking to upgrade their skills and knowledge and gain a recognized training product in operating a dump truck. Whether you are an experienced operator looking to refresh your knowledge or someone who is new to the industry, the A56 course is designed to suit your needs. With both theory and practical training, the novice operator is able to gain valuable experience and the experienced operator able to brush up on their knowledge. With a dump truck being a necessary asset to many industries, this course is sure to suit many individuals. A dump truck is commonly used in the construction and mining industries. Therefore, proficiency in operating the machine would be beneficial for anyone employed within these industries. Furthermore, a dump truck is a high capital machine and in downturns in the economy, it is often parked up for long periods of time. Many businesses and operators are looking to diversify their skills and operate other machines. This course provides an opportunity for a dump truck operator to gain experience and a recognized certification in other plant machinery. It is recommended that all persons be over the age of 18 and hold a current unrestricted driver’s license. This is because to operate a dump truck in a workplace, it is a requirement to hold a driver’s license, therefore it is consistent with industry standards to be a requirement for the course. The person should also be familiar with using the National Assessment Tool for the dump truck (RIIMPO337D – Conduct Articulated Truck Operations). This is because our training resources and materials are based off this competency and the individual should have an understanding of what assessment is required to show competency in operating a dump truck. This information can be easily accessed from the training.gov.au website.

2. Dump Truck Articulated Chassis

In extreme conditions, it may be necessary to turn the entire truck around in a confined space with the articulation joint allowing the rear section to follow the path of the front section. This can only be achieved with a machine that has drive to all wheels and with articulated steering.

Static tipping loads are quoted for standardized test conditions. In reality, when a truck is tipping, the load is often not evenly distributed, which can exceed the load on one side of the truck. This, combined with the often-uneven ground conditions, tipping loads on one side of the truck can become excessive. To prevent the truck from overturning, an articulated truck can use the articulation joint to lean the rear section in the opposite direction to the load. This reduces the levering effect and increases stability.

The articulated chassis is the key to the superior mobility of the dump truck in rough terrain conditions. It consists of two main sections connected by a pivot joint (the hitch). The front section consists of the cab, engine, and steering gear, and the rear section houses the load. The two sections are connected by the hitch and supported by hydraulic rams, which can raise and lower the rear section. The articulation joint allows the front and rear sections to move independently. This is important when the rear wheels are on a slippery surface and are unable to propel the truck. With the articulation joint, the front section can be driven to a position where it can pull the rear section out of trouble.

Definition and Components

2.1 Definition and Components

A dump truck articulated chassis can be defined simply as a hinge system that is attached between a semi-trailer and the towing truck. Now defined in greater detail with reference to dump trucks, it is the point at which the dump box is connected to the truck frame, allowing the two to move in a hinging fashion. It is constituted by three main components: the truck frame where the driver sits, the front axle, and the rear dumping section. The front part of the truck is a standard truck in its own right, with the usual steering. The rear part is where it differs; the front part of the rear section is supported by the front axle of the chassis. The box is free to move and is supported by the use of hydraulic rams. The rams do not lift the box; they apply a force between the box and the chassis, and depending upon the angle of articulation, this force will cause the box to tip. At full articulation, all of the force is relayed into tipping the box when the truck is static. The rear part of the chassis is the section that pivots upon the front section and is generally referred to as the turntable. It is due to this complicated rear section that articulated dump trucks have a greater turning radius than rigid trucks.

2.2 Types of Dump Truck Articulated Chassis

This brings us to our next section, which is the mechanism of articulation.

The swivel pivot chassis has a chassis mounted on a turntable which is mounted on the tractor. Steering is achieved by the turntable rotating relative to the tractor. The wheels of the trailer follow the same path as the tractor, resulting in a more articulated steering method compared to the standard type. This type of chassis is more complex and also heavier due to the extra chassis and turntable. A major advantage is that weight distribution is more even compared to the standard type, which is an important factor in vehicle stability.

The two basic types of dump truck articulated chassis are the standard and the swivel pivot types. The standard articulation type has a hinge between the tractor and the trailer acting as a pivot point. Steering is achieved by varying the speeds of the tractor wheels relative to the trailer, therefore causing the vehicle to pivot about the hinge. This type of chassis is simple and effective and is the most common type of articulated chassis.

2.3 Articulation Mechanism

The articulation mechanism can be found on all types of dump truck articulated chassis, with the most common types being the centre pivot and the mid hinge. The centre pivot type utilises a turning ring fitted between the front and rear chassis frames. The front frame is supported by the turning ring by a bearing, and the rear frame is attached to the turning ring. This allows the front and rear frames to move independently of each other and provides a steering angle between 25 and 45 degrees. Most modern dump trucks use the mid hinge type, which provides better chassis and body alignment during the tipping cycle. It consists of a hinge point in the middle of the chassis frame with hydraulic rams attached, one on each side, and the angle between the front and rear frames varies typically between 40 and 60 degrees.

2.4 Steering and Control Systems

A steering and control system uses a combination of linkages and gearing to turn the front wheels of the truck in response to a turn of the steering wheel. Its main components are the steering wheel, the steering column, the steering box, and the linkages consisting of many rods and joints that connect the steering box to the front wheels. There are two types of steering gear used on dump trucks, commonly known as worm and roller, and recirculating ball. Both are types of steering boxes. Steering angle has a large effect on the turning circle of a vehicle, especially on a vehicle with limited articulation. For this reason, many articulated dump trucks use a system known as crab steering. This system allows the operator to steer the truck in the traditional sense, moving the front wheels in the same direction, or turn them to an equal and opposite angle. This has the effect of moving the truck diagonally and is useful for maneuvering the truck in tight spaces. A control system uses the combination of levers, pedals, and linkages to control the transmission, braking system, and lifting mechanism of the truck. The use of such systems depends upon the configuration and capabilities of the truck in question.

3. Safety Precautions

Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Before operating the dumper, a hazard and risk assessment should be done. The operator will be looking to see if there are any hazards to him/herself, to others, or the dumper. He will take steps to remove any likelihood of an accident occurring. This can be done by taking simple precautions such as making sure there is enough light to carry out the task, taking a different route to avoid any difficulties, and making sure everyone else is clear of his working area. He will be constantly assessing where he is working to look for potential new hazards and will make a note in his mind or write it down if necessary. A risk assessment should be carried out in any job. This is identifying the environmental risks, who might be affected, and how likely the hazards are to occur. The operator will then decide if adequate precautions are already in place or if not what to do to resolve the hazard.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) All personnel involved in the operation of dumpers should wear the necessary PPE which is required for the site. PPE used in the quarrying industry is commonly steel toe cap boots, high visibility waistcoat, safety helmet and safety glasses, gloves, and ear protection. The PPE will protect the worker from sustaining any personal injuries from the environment he/she will be working in. This can be a variety of different safety issues for feet, eyes, hands, breathing, and ears. He/she should be informed of what potential risks there are on site and will be given the correct PPE from a stores person or health & safety manager.

3.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

– High Visibility Clothing: This should be a standard requirement for the operator due to the ever-present risk of being struck by other site vehicles. The class of the high-vis clothing should be appropriate to the level of risk; i.e. the higher the speed limit of vehicles on site, the higher the class of the high-vis. For general plant operator work, high-vis class 3 is recommended.

– Safety Footwear: This must conform to the relevant standard and incorporate toe protection. It is usually steel-toe-capped boots. A higher level of protection with mid-sole protection is recommended.

– Helmet: This is a mandatory requirement for anyone working on a construction site. It must comply with the current British/European safety standard and must be worn whenever there is a risk of injury to the head.

As the operator of a dump truck on a construction site, you must wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to minimize the risk of injury. The owner of the site will conduct a full site-specific hazard assessment to determine the PPE required. This may vary from site to site and may include the following:

3.2 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

The trainer must first introduce the concept of personal safety and its importance. This can be best illustrated by relating to everyday situations or using examples from other incidents on site. Once the importance of personal safety has been established, the attitude of the group should be discussed. Changing negative attitudes can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, it is time well spent, as an individual with a positive attitude towards safety is less likely to be involved in an incident. This, in turn, affects company culture in a positive way. The trainer must also emphasize the real reasons for working safely, which will include working to protect themselves, fellow workers, and also their family. The session can be concluded by giving active listening tasks which include video examples of safe and unsafe work and group discussion. Personal responsibility to prevent incidents should be emphasized throughout. When discussing hazards, identification is a difficult task. Many individuals no longer see the original hazard; they see a situation that is normal to them. An example of this could be when walking on site, many workers now automatically walk under a suspended load whereas in their training they know this is not safe. By using written situations or photos and separating into small groups, the trainer can ask the delegates to identify the hazards. Each group will then present to the class, and the trainer can check the understanding of each hazard. To discuss risk management, a scenario-based learning method will be most effective. The trainer can display volatile situations and question the potential consequences. An input and feedback session with a risk assessment template would also be beneficial to the delegates. This can help to understand that an individual assessment is not needed for every task, just the tasks that present the most severe consequences.

3.3 Safe Operating Procedures

SOPs should always be developed in consultation with the individuals who will be responsible for following and performing the tasks. Input from workers is crucial to ensure that the procedures align with the actual practices in the field and that no steps have been overlooked. This is important to ensure that the task is broken down into sufficient detail. An example of this is shown, where workers were unwilling to consult the manuals for the gear change pattern, prompting a change to include the gear pattern in the task instructions.

The procedures are presented in a flowchart format, with steps numbered sequentially and arrows indicating the connections between steps that require multiple actions. This visual representation helps users understand the sequence of steps needed to complete the task. An example of the layout is shown.

The procedures consist of listed steps, including a heading, an overview of the task, and a sequence of steps to complete it. These steps are broken down to a level that is understandable for the person performing the task.

Safe operating procedures are written instructions that outline the hands-on steps required to complete a task safely. These procedures serve as a guide for individuals performing the task, providing a sequence of steps to follow.

A safe procedure is defined as a series of detailed step-by-step instructions for safely and efficiently completing a task or job, regardless of its complexity. Having the right procedure in place can make the task or job much easier.

3.4 Emergency Procedures

In case of emergency, every member of the team should be familiar with the location and operation of fire fighting equipment. They should also be instructed in first aid, especially severe bleeding and fractures. Consideration should be given to the precise location of the nearest telephone, and an emergency telephone numbers list should be posted on the site notice board. Preparation is the key to a good result in case of an emergency occurring. Handing this document to the person taking control at the emergency, and the “5 minute site brief procedures” will have prepared the site manager well. Random emergency scenarios that are site-specific can be initiated at the end of the working day to test the preparedness of the team. All operatives should know the right procedures to stand down the site quickly and safely by a series of short blasts from a whistle or horn. On completion of a dump truck duty, if the driver has operated in isolation, conducted a tandem lift, or has been involved in slinging operations, they should report back to the site manager of any slinging/signaller directions that have resulted in the driver feeling uncomfortable. This should be done away from immediate dump truck activity and recorded in the appropriate changeover diary.

4. Equipment Inspection and Maintenance

This is a simpler operation in that the operator only needs to depress the clutch and select a speed using the torque converter speed selector. The plate behind this lever will be useful to explain to the operator which speed is most efficient for the task at hand.

The straight change lever is used to select forward travel. This is achieved by moving the lever out of the central position and is an easier operation if the clutch is pressed whilst doing so. The lever is then pushed up; however, if the operator selects first gear, the lever must be held until the next instruction. Any gear above first can be selected if the lever is pushed up further. Step 4.5 ID Collating information from the multi-cluster display, explain how the operator checks the speed selected and the gear the truck is in. Move the lever to select reverse travel.

The truck is now ready to carry out the day-to-day duties. Step 4.4 What are the correct levers to use when traveling forward or reversing and when does the operator select each one?

The levers on the final drive to inspect and maintain are located on the bulkhead, each operates the opposite track. Set the engine speed to medium.

4.2 Something caught/someone starts to operate the truck. What are the first steps? With the engine at low revs for electric and the retarder pedal for auto/torque converter box lever engaged, raise the RPMs to a medium speed. Step 4.3 Make sure the retarder pedal is set in the off position and select the highest travel gear.

The next instruction, any levers or floor plates referred to, are viewed from the operator position.

After all pre-operational checks have been carried out, the cab and body can be raised and the dump box tilted. The levers are located to the lower right of the operator.

4.1 Pre-Operation Inspection

Implementing an inspection portfolio can ensure consistency during a larger job, where multiple operators are used. Producing and filling out a report form can also ensure faults are dealt with in a timely manner.

Spare a thought as to whether there seems to be anything different with the truck compared to the last time you used it. Giving the truck a wash down at the end of each shift will help to identify small problems before they develop into major ones. This may also be important for safety, the truck could be carrying a load which is due to be tipped, any load which is sticking to the body of the truck could release and fall on top of the driver while tipping. Any unscheduled weight rapidly reduces the life of hydraulic, transmission, and drive line components.

First of all, make sure the truck is parked on level ground with the park brake applied and the engine turned off. Remove the key to ensure the engine cannot be started while you perform your checks. During your check of the truck, it may be necessary to start the engine to adequately check the operation of various components or systems. If so, park in the safe location and follow the manufacturer’s current safe system of work for working near moving parts. Stay aware of your surroundings at all times during checks involving moving parts.

Before the dump truck is used on the job, running through a quick inspection will ensure everything is in working order while also preventing unnecessary damage that can occur when operating faulty equipment. Plan to spend around 10 minutes checking the truck over. Any faults which are found should be reported, to be repaired before the truck is used.

4.2 Daily Maintenance Checks

By completing these checks, the chance of a major issue with the dumper’s working gear is reduced. If any issues are identified, quick replacement parts can be fitted before the failure happens. This is more cost effective than replacing major components due to a failure.

Daily maintenance checks include: – Ensure that all guards are in position with no damage or issue with mountings. – Confirm that all the lights are operational, including indicators. – Look for any diesel, oil, hydraulic leaks from the machine. – With the engine on tick over, ensure that all the air from the air compressor is going into the air receiver. – Drain any water or debris from the air receiver. – Confirm that the steering is not notchy or juddery. – Ensure the brakes are in good working order. – Using the service braking system, test to see if the retarder is operational. – Ensure that the tip is smooth with no sudden jolting movements from the body. Check for any air leaks from the hydraulic systems. – Check for any loose or missing wheel nuts. – Lower the body and turn the dumper off. Ensure all controls are in the off position.

There are certain maintenance checks that need to be done on a daily basis. These are quick checks to ensure that the machine is in safe working order and that any possible problem is identified before it becomes a major issue.

4.3 Lubrication and Fluid Levels

With regards to fluid levels, it is often difficult to detect the levels of contamination within transmission oils and fluids. Regular changing of oils and fluids is often the only preventative measure, and fluid level inspection is often insufficient. However, when a machine is working in water or very dusty/sandy conditions, it is usual to check levels more frequently, and in some cases, an increased level of maintenance can be employed. It is essential to keep seals and drainage points in good condition, ensuring that no ingress of contaminants can occur, and if possible, eliminate the possibility of contamination by modification of the component or its location.

Lubrication is essential to ensure that all working components within the linkage are not worn and are free to move. When a vehicle is parked up for the night, the components within the steering linkage will become susceptible to a build-up of rust, and if not maintained, the rust will increase wear and component failure. These problems can be prevented by greasing the components, ensuring effective lubrication of all moving parts. Grease is also effective in preventing the ingress of dirt and moisture, which can also increase wear.

4.4 Troubleshooting and Reporting Faults

Troubleshooting is the procedure of recognizing and redressing faults in a system. Although all faults are recognized in order to rectify them, some faults are not able to be rectified instantly and need to be monitored until action can be taken. The operator is in an ideal position to notice a fault developing and this procedure will provide instructions. Keep a log of all faults however minor and report them to your supervisor at the earliest opportunity. As faults can have many causes i.e. faulty operation, inadequate training, poor specifications. These will need to be diagnosed and corrected to prevent re-occurrence. The action that you take against a fault will depend entirely on the severity of the fault. The servicing and maintenance inspection form provides an option to grade faults as critical or non-critical. Critical faults are those that will decrease safety or comfort, increase downtime or damage other parts if actions are insufficient. Non-critical faults are those which may decrease the efficiency of the machine. Aside from the Equipment Fault Report form, a record of all faults and actions taken should be logged for future reference.

5. Operating Techniques

When starting the dump truck, operate in a safe location on site and ensure you are seated comfortably. This course may have reinforced the importance of wearing your seat belt while operating the dump truck; this is the time to explain that you should not put it on until after the dump truck has started. This is to preserve the life of your seat belt buckle. When the seat belt is buckled up, ensure the park brake is engaged and wait for all warning and indicator lights to go out. Release the park brake and select the appropriate gear for the task. Reverse should be used when the dump truck is traveling up a slope, up a ramp, or on any uneven ground going backwards. Do not use neutral as this offers no resistance and puts unnecessary strain on the retarder and service brake. Once all of the above has been done, you may use the accelerator to begin travel. Shutting down the dump truck is a very simple procedure. Ensure the park brake is engaged, place the gear in neutral, allow the engine RPM to decrease by idling, engage the park brake, and turn off the engine. Always ensure that the park brake is engaged before releasing the service brake. This is to prevent movement of the dump truck, particularly when it is parked on a slope.

5.1 Starting and Shutting Down Procedures

Before moving, depress the footbrake and check that the air/hydraulic brake pressure warning light comes on and goes off when pressure is reached. Also, test the service brakes to ensure they are operational. With air over hydraulic brake systems, it may be necessary to pump the footbrake to achieve a brake pedal. Note: some newer dumpers may utilize a control to switch between auto-upshift and manual gear selection. Always check the machine controls with the machine supplier to ensure correct operation.

Under no circumstances should anyone attempt to adjust the engine speed control or tamper with the fuel injection setting to increase the engine speed. Engines are generally electronically controlled and interference will affect the engine performance. High idle engine speeds are not required to warm the engine. Always allow the engine to warm at low idle settings.

Ensure the handbook is on hand and you are seated in the cab with handbrake applied and in neutral gear. Check all around the dumper for obstacles and that no unauthorized personnel are in the vicinity. Fasten the seat belt and start the engine. Upon start-up, check to see that all warning lights are working.

5.2 Acceleration and Deceleration

The correct method will save on tyre wear and fuel, as well as ensuring stability of the vehicle. The correct method will depend upon the situation found, the surface the vehicle is working on, and the load being carried. The factors influencing gradient, load and surface were discussed earlier in section 3. The key issues to be considered are that sudden acceleration will lead to wheel spin, and harsh braking will endanger stability of the vehicle. On firm, level ground and carrying a light load, acceleration can be fairly rapid up to the vehicle’s flat out speed. It must be remembered however that excessive speed on a loaded vehicle can be dangerous, and that vehicles often do not handle the same with a load, especially when loaded to one side. In general, the best method to move off on any ground is to apply power gently, in low gear to avoid clutch slip. This allows for smooth acceleration without wheel spin. Once momentum is gained, the vehicle should reach a speed where top gear is engaged, providing this does not result in excessive speed. Where ground is rough, soft, or steeply graded, a smoother and slower acceleration should be employed using lower gears. It must always be remembered that when descending gradients the engine/gearbox has to be used to control the speed of the vehicle. The service brake should not be used to a great extent, as this can cause skidding, load shift, or damage to the surface. For this reason, it is important to take the correct gear before commencing a descent. Where possible, the vehicle should be reversed down, as this reduces the risk of overturn and avoids the need for steering which can lead to side slip. Reversing down steep slopes may cause difficulties with control and visibility, and where it is felt these cannot be maintained, it may be best to buck rack the vehicle empty and travel downhill with the load.

5.3 Gear Selection and Shifting

Reverse gear is achieved by selecting neutral, then choosing reverse gear from the H pattern. Again, engine revs can be increased to aid the truck’s movement in reverse. Always check behind the truck before moving in reverse.

Forward gears: Ensure that the truck is not moving. Select the desired gear by moving the shift lever in an H pattern, pushing the lever fully into the desired gear position. It is not necessary to use the clutch during gear changes; however, to avoid grinding of gears, it is good practice to do so. Push the throttle to increase engine revs, then release the service brake to move off. Depending on the load and terrain, the truck may pull away with no additional throttle input. High range gears will require more throttle input to prevent stalling. Always use the highest gear possible in relation to travel speed.

To correctly operate the forward and reverse gears, the following procedures should be used:

5.4 Load Handling and Dumping

Deceleration and changing down Whilst descending gradients, both loaded and unloaded, the operator should select a gear that will allow maximum engine braking by utilizing the decompression effect of the engine. Where ground conditions may cause the machine to slide or be unstable, the operator should take extra precautions, and these areas may need to be avoided altogether. Braking is essential when descending gradients, and the machine should be in as low a gear as possible without overspeeding the engine. The footbrake is to be used in moderation, and the service brake is to be used in emergency situations only. When the machine is loaded, extra care must be taken to brake gently and to drive at a speed that will ensure safe and stable progress. Extra care may need to be taken where materials are being carried in a skip or bed that has a door or tailgate. Load and dump tipping operations are a critical safety aspect and pose a number of risks to personnel on the ground if not conducted properly. It is essential that tipping is done in a safe area where there are no risks of a machine overturn or sliding. The area should also be clear of other site traffic and personnel, and tipping should not be done near site excavation. Tipping should be done in short stages with the machine being moved forward as the skip or bed is being raised. Care should be taken to ensure the machine is not overbalanced at any point during this operation, and controls should be operated smoothly and carefully. If safe, the tipping area can be graded with the machine after dumping has been completed. On completing the operation, a slope should not be driven up in reverse with the bed or skip raised.

6. Site Operations

The site operator, together with the dump truck operator using an excavator for loading and a water cart, is to develop a traffic plan to detail the route that trucks must take to pass safely from the point of loading to the dump point and return. This shall take into consideration the prevailing site conditions, the nature of the materials and the capabilities of the machinery and trucks to be used. It shall also identify individual passing and meeting places, location of stockpiles to be avoided by vehicle traffic and identify any portions of the route that are unsuitable for haulage and must be avoided. Traffic routes shall be maintained in a safe and serviceable condition with particular attention to drainage and the control of water cart operations and shall be inspected and maintained on a regular basis. Where there are changes in gradient or conditions are such that travel without a load is more hazardous than travel with a load, the loaded truck must give way to the empty truck. All vehicles must travel at safe speeds taking due consideration of load conditions, prevailing site conditions and relevant road rules. If there is a likelihood that a vehicle travelling in one direction will encounter a vehicle travelling in the opposite direction at a portion of the route that is not wide enough for safe passing, the operator of the first vehicle to arrive at that portion of the route shall be responsible to ensure that the other vehicle is aware of the situation and can take appropriate action to avoid an incident.

6.1 Site Safety Requirements

Appropriate clothing, footwear, and PPE should be worn at all times. Anyone operating the machine must hold the necessary CPCS card. If there are any deficiencies with the machine or it is involved in an incident, the operator must report this immediately. The user should be familiar with the safe tipping weights and loading capacity to avoid any disaster. Any site with a slope of over 10 degrees will need a specific risk assessment, and the operator must be informed of the safe tipping angles and the dump zone. On steep slopes, extra caution must be taken, and if safe operation cannot be ensured, then the machine should not be used. The site haul road must be maintained at all times to ensure that it is of adequate width and that there are no potholes, loose fill, or any hazards that can cause the machine to destabilize or the load to shift. A banksman should be used to guide the dumper in areas of tight access or where visibility is restricted. The travel paths of the machine should be pre-planned to avoid any hazardous or unnecessary inclines or descents, and the machine should avoid working near any ground that may be unstable due to adverse weather. If the machine is to be used near water, extra precautions should be taken, and a risk assessment should be carried out. An exclusion zone should be set up, and if possible, the slope and bank of the body should have additional shoring.

6.2 Maneuvering and Positioning

A good operator will move about the site with the minimum number of moves and ensure that he has good visibility in the area of work. Before carrying out a maneuver, the operator should check that there is adequate room to carry out the maneuver and identify any hazards that may be in the path of the vehicle. If in doubt, the operator should get out of the vehicle and check the site rules. Signalers are an important part of ensuring that the vehicle moves around the site safely and efficiently. If a vehicle moves with a load that obstructs the driver’s view, then a signaler should be used to guide the driver. All signalers should be trained to a standard which ensures that they use the correct hand signals, and the machine driver should also be trained to recognize these hand signals. If visibility is poor, then the use of radios between machine operatives can be used to good effect. Failed communication between operatives and inadequate machine maneuvering are the most common causes of accidents on the construction site involving construction plant. LTAI (Loss Time Accident Incident) statistics provided by various construction industries and HSE statistics consistently document the impact of inadequate vehicle maneuvering and failed communication between machine operatives. Any change to the normal condition of the ground or the construction of an embankment, road, track or working platform can affect the stability of plant and vehicles. This may necessitate increased vigilance and the use of a competent banksman to direct vehicles and control the nature and the route of its movement around the site. High-risk areas should be identified and extra vigilance exercised. A Safe System of Work or a method statement may be prepared. Failure to do this has resulted in serious incidents involving multiple fatalities and personnel injury and involving the overturn of vehicles or loss of control of vehicles which collided with other vehicles or persons.

6.3 Loading and Unloading Procedures

Vehicles must be checked for loading hazards. They must not be overloaded, and loads must be secure. The correct loading and unloading procedure will often require a compacted and relatively level platform, situated within the articulated vehicle’s operating reach. This can often be a problem as the typical artic dump truck has been designed for off-road performance with high ground clearance, and the low bed height required for easy loading and unloading conflicts with this. If the vehicle cannot be positioned to safely load or unload, it shall be driven onto a suitable location using a different method, typically front tipping or by reversing with the articulated part of the vehicle. If the vehicle is heavily loaded, the site dumper may need to tow it into position. When loaded, the vehicle’s stability will heavily rely on load position. It is common knowledge that an offset load to one side on a rigid truck is unstable and will cause handling problems. The same can be said for the artic truck, although the effects are more complex. A load positioned to one side on the artic dump truck will cause the center pivot chassis to be off-center to the tow vehicle. This is because, unlike a rigid dumper, the role center pitch line does not change in relation to the tow vehicle. This configuration creates a heavy load on the inside wheel of the pivot, which will cause wheel slip and possible immobilization of the vehicle. This type of situation can be rectified by chaining or jamming the steering of the pivot to a direct position. This will improve the situation, but we do not recommend continuous driving with an awkward load position. Unloading is the reversal method of loading, and all these principles will apply. If the load is detrimental to the stability of the vehicle, we recommend towing said load to a suitable location and unloading using a different method. Step 13 of the UK ITTJ. Best Practice Guide for Self Discharging Vehicles is essential reading for unloading procedures and methods.

6.4 Site Communication and Coordination

Coordination of activities between equipment operators, banksman, and other site personnel is also essential to ensure a smooth and safe operation. Regular site meetings involving all relevant personnel should be held to plan the sequence of work. This should take into account the current and predicted weather conditions and how these may affect the ground and site access. The specific areas where each activity is to be carried out should be designated and clearly marked on a site plan. Activity locations can be changed as work progresses, but it is essential that changes are communicated to all relevant personnel. An established code of signals between banksman and equipment operators should be used to indicate movement of plant and equipment, stopping work, emergency stop, and to give warning of any potential danger. This is best achieved using two-way radios, but where this is not possible, the use of arm signals should be practiced and perfected. A suitable example of a code of signals would be: two short radio blasts to indicate movement of equipment, followed by the location or direction, one long blast to stop work, three long blasts to indicate an emergency stop.

Communication in any work situation is essential to safe and efficient operations. A good flow of information between personnel at all levels will ensure the constant awareness of site conditions, activities being carried out, and the knowledge of who is working in which location and with what plant or equipment. Poor communication is a major factor in many site accidents and often occurs because personnel are unsure of who is in control and who is responsible for making key decisions. It is vital that all employees are fully aware of the chain of command for information and decision-making and that this is adhered to in all situations. This is even more important in emergency situations where a quick decision may be necessary to avert a dangerous occurrence.

7. Environmental Considerations

On arrival at a facility, hazardous waste should be stored separately, and an inventory should be kept. Fly-tipped waste is waste illegally deposited on land. It is a criminal offence and can cause serious pollution incidents that may damage human health and the environment. Measures to prevent fly-tipping should be considered in the early stages of a project. Gates may be installed if the entrance to a site is easily accessible. Any fly-tipped waste on the site should be removed and disposed of.

A large proportion of waste generated from CD activities will be hazardous, often because it contains substances that are no longer needed, such as lead-based paint, or those that have degraded over time, such as asbestos, a known carcinogen. In this case, the waste should still be assessed as to its risk and availability. Only when a disposal option has been identified should decisions be made about how to transport the waste to a facility. All waste should be transported in a safe and suitable manner, using appropriately licensed carriers. For example, the movement of hazardous waste may require a specialist carrier and/or a hazardous waste notification with the Environment Agency.

Waste management is an important consideration in the operation of waste from construction and demolition activities. It is not classified as household waste. Below are the descriptions of the different types of waste that could be generated from CD activities. For each type of waste, an assessment is made of the waste’s potential to cause harm and its availability at a facility. An assessment of waste may conclude that it is hazardous, but further research may determine that the waste does not pose a significant risk to the environment or human health. In these cases, the waste should be reclassified as non-hazardous.

7.1 Waste Management

Material loading tasks will be very similar to loading any other loose material, in that the material must be handled effectively to avoid spillage or loss of load. The equipment matched to the dump truck will depend on the task and the material. If the material was being loaded from a muck pile into the bed of the dump truck, a loading shovel with a clean-up bucket would be very effective. Where possible, it would be best to avoid using the dump truck as a prime moving device, using it only as a haulage tool between loading and dumping tasks. This saves unnecessary wear and tear of the dump truck and reduces fuel consumption. Any haulage task would be described as the journey between the two points, with fuel consumption being dependent on the weight of the load and distance to be travelled. Any waste locator who has studied the A56 dump truck course will know the best way to load and dump, so there’s no need to elaborate on this. The same goes for loading and unloading with an excavator, which has been fully described in the previous chapter. Any material transportation tasks will require suitable planning, taking into account the material type and volume, locating and choosing the best route to the end destination to avoid excessive compaction and or rutting of existing ground and damage to any environmental features, and may require an environmental assessment of the area to be worked.

The final waste management activity that can be defined is the activity of transportation of waste. This could be transporting waste from one construction or extraction activity to a waste disposal site or it could even involve clearing an existing waste disposal site. During any waste transportation activity, the A56 operator will be using a dump truck to load, haul and unload waste materials. These tasks have been fully described in the previous chapter; however there are different considerations to be made during these tasks when the material being handled is waste.

An occasional activity could involve the transport of waste from one area of a site to another area of the same site for the purpose of land reclamation. This activity bears many similarities to the loading, hauling and unloading cycle with the material being moved having an end destination i.e the area created for its intended use. Step one of the process is planning. After the above mentioned steps have been carried out, the operator should plan a route to the area where the material is to be moved and decide which is the best way to spread and level the material at its end destination. Commencing the operation. This would involve loading the transported waste into the bed of a dump truck, transporting the waste to the desired location and unloading it.

The only construction and extraction activity naturally qualified as a waste management activity is the practice of salvaging items from a landfill. So long as the landfill is being used as the destination for the material being salvaged and the salvaging activity is conducted in compliance with an approved salvage plan in accordance with local planning consent. This activity involves removing materials from the waste stream for the purposes of recycling, generating energy, or even reuse. The A56 operator should be suitably trained to conduct this activity using his machine. He should conduct an environmental assessment of the area of the landfill he will be operating in to determine the risks involved with operating a machine in that area. When conducting the assessment, the operator should only consider the features or species that are protected by legislation. This would not usually apply to landfill sites but it’s always best to check. The next step would be to use the information gathered to plan the work in such a way that it eliminates or minimises any potential adverse effects. When all thought and planning has been done, the operator can begin salvaging the materials that were agreed in the salvage plan.

7.2 Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Control

This moves us to the topic of emissions control. Today’s generation of diesel engines are almost unrecognizable to their forefathers in terms of emissions output, and this is largely due to strict regulations set by governments and enforced by engine manufacturers over the past 20 years. European legislation almost always sets the standard for emissions output of engines, and these standards have been tightened more and more with the introduction of the Euro 5 and now post-Brexit the Euro VI.

As technology in dump trucks increases, notably with the advent of automated and remote control vehicles, there are now trucks on the market that are powered by electricity. While these trucks are currently unsuitable for heavy off-road use, the future may see a shift in this type of technology. An example is the Hybrid Terex Unit Rig MT4400 mining truck, which has recorded a 50% increase in fuel efficiency at the Eskom Grootvlei power station in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The machine uses electrical energy supplied by an external source to drive the machine, coupled with an optimized energy recovery system that captures energy dissipated during retarding and braking, using this energy to power the machine. The key plus to electric-powered vehicles is that they have zero emissions.

Many modern dump trucks are now being equipped with an ejector-type body, utilizing hydraulic rams to push the load out of the body. Compared to a traditional end-tip dumping body, an ejector body reduces the number of return journeys back to the site due to a load getting stuck or the truck turning over to eject a difficult load. The energy used here to power a hydraulic system can be offset with the saved return journey, which is usually more fuel-efficient.

Heavy vehicles often attract adverse publicity, largely due to their negative effects on the environment. The disposal of waste materials can raise environmental questions, and in this respect, dump trucks are often used as an example of bad practice. In general, the disposal of waste is not a consideration at the construction phase of a project. Therefore, the waste in transit is generally a byproduct of other activities on the site. There are often occasions where a load is deemed unsuitable for disposal and is returned to the site.

7.3 Noise and Vibration Control

This mitigates the environmental impact of noise and vibration on the local community and prevents damage to machinery and drivers. This training guide specifically highlights the need to control noise and vibration from construction plant as it has the potential to cause irreversible damage to both the surrounding environment and to the health of your workforce. This is particularly important when working on demolition sites or in residential areas close to the general public. In these cases, the use of machinery with excessive levels of noise causes complaints from local residents and can result in legal action against the contractor. Regular use of machinery such as vibratory plate compactors can lead to a condition known as “white finger syndrome” in the operators. This is a painful and disabling injury of the fingers and can cause difficulty in cold weather conditions – often triggered when operating a vibrating tool. Damage to health and the onset of diseases must be minimized where possible and although it is not always possible to eliminate noise and vibration from equipment, it can be substituted for more controlled and less harmful methods.

8. Assessments and Certification

For the theory assessment, the candidate must complete an underpinning knowledge paper which comprises of multiple choice questions to be completed over a 60-minute period. The CPCS technical test for A56 Dump Truck Forward Tipping Dumper consists of two categories: Endorsement K and category A42/a. The candidate must achieve endorsements on the Dumper and Tracked Carrier or Wheeled Carrier to be able to achieve the CPCS Red Trained Operator card. The candidate must have already achieved the CPCS Dumper operator theory test within the last 2 years and hold a valid CPCS Dumper operator card to take the endorsement tests. Within the practical assessment, the candidate will be tested on their ability to carry out the role safely and efficiently. These tests will be used to confirm a pass on each module leading to units of competence. The testing process can be observed in the CPCS Testing Criteria Sheet. The certification process will be assessed using a tracking system with the CPCS appointed provider that the candidate has registered with for training. The tracking system will be used to set up the theory and practical tests and will also indicate any tests that have been failed and when they can be retaken. All relevant forms and applications will be processed through the CPCS appointed provider.

8.1 Theory Assessment

Before theory question papers are completed, the test centre administrator will complete a statement of authentication, identifying the candidate and confirming that the theory test has been completed without assistance from others or any reference material. This authentication statement will then be sent to CPCS administrator at CITB, where it will be countersigned and stored on the candidate’s file as evidence of successful completion of the theory test. The theory test will be taken under fixed examination conditions. Two separate question papers, each of one hour’s duration, will be undertaken, each of 60 multiple choice questions. The two papers will cover the required learning outcomes for each of the four modules of the course. Both question papers should be attempted in the same day, but there is no requirement that they both be taken on the same occasion. Papers should be attempted in sequence, module 1 paper first, then module 2 paper and so on. Date paper passages are flexible and may be taken at the convenience of the candidate, providing they are both completed within 12 months of the achievement of a successful practical assessment.

8.2 Practical Assessment

Candidates are required to undergo a practical test at the end of the combined theory and practical A56 dump truck articulated chassis training, and this has been set by the Construction Plant Competence Scheme (CPCS) as a direct response to concerns raised by the Health and Safety Executive with the aim of setting a recognized standard across the industry. Through the red and blue cards recently introduced by the CPCS scheme, it is now possible for us to conduct the NPORS operators and competent operators tests, ensuring all personnel are working to the same standard. These tests can be carried out at our center in Elvington or at the customers’ premises. The length of time achieved will depend on the position the candidate holds in the construction plant industry and will be reflected in their individual logbooks. Please contact us at Elvington Plant Training Services for more information as we are able to provide a service catering to your individual requirements.

8.3 Certification Process

The final stage of the assessment process is the application for the CPCS red trained operator card. Application forms can be obtained from CPCS directly or downloaded from the CPCS website. The applicant is required to supply passport-sized photographs, an application fee, and a copy of their CPCS technical test pass certificate. The applicant should then post their application to the CPCS administration offices. On successful processing of the application, the applicant will receive their red trained operator card. This card is valid for a period of two years. Before the card expires, the operator will need to undertake further NVQ assessment in order to apply for the blue competent operator card. This involves the operator compiling a portfolio of evidence to prove their competence in the occupation over a period of time. Information on NVQ assessment can be supplied from the CITB. The blue competent operator card is valid for a period of five years. Re-registration for another five-year period can be achieved when the operator has obtained an SVQ in the occupational area. The SVQ is equivalent to the NVQ but is based on Scottish occupational standards. More information can be supplied from the SQA.