CPCS A57 Dump Truck Rigid Chassis Course

1. Introduction

Course Objectives Upon successful completion of the CPCS A56 Dump Truck Rigid Chassis training course, delegates will be able to: – Operate the machine for all normal tasks – Conduct all pre-operational checks – Configure and set for travel on the public highway, site, and quarry – Explain actions required for hazards, underground, and overhead services

Importance of Dump Truck Rigid Chassis Training Many accidents with dump trucks occur due to undertrained personnel, using the incorrect plant for the lift or ground conditions, lack of understanding the instability of the dumper while tipping, and improper loading and unloading techniques. This can result in loss of life, serious injury, and significant damage to equipment and property. This course is designed to provide a comprehensive and in-depth training of the dumper operator, giving them the skills and understanding to work safely and productively.

Course Overview The CPCS A56 Dump Truck Rigid Chassis course is designed to provide candidates with a thorough practical and theory training in operating a Rigid Dump Truck. On successful completion of the theory and practical tests, the candidate will be able to operate a Rigid Dump Truck safely and correctly in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and accepted good practice. The CPCS A56 Dump Truck Rigid Chassis course is delivered for formally unqualified personnel and will provide the candidate with a CPCS trained operator red card on successful completion.

1.1. Course Overview

This course provides both experienced operatives and inexperienced personnel with thorough health and safety training to enable the former to prepare for the CPCS assessment and the latter to attain the CPCS Red Trained Operator Card. This course is aimed at operators who work in road haulage or construction, utilizing Rigid Dump Trucks. The aim of the course is to provide the candidate with the basic knowledge and practical skills involved in Rigid Dump Truck operations ranging from site safety to actually using the machine. On passing the technical tests, the candidate will be able to return to a site and using the information in the course notes, the CORE and the machine operating instructions carry out a risk assessment. This will enable the candidate to move on and progress up through the different levels of NVQ in the future. The course duration will depend on the experience and number of personnel attending a course. A novice candidate may require up to ten days training and testing whereas an experienced operative may only require two days. On passing the theory test, the experienced operative may wish to use the CPCS logbook to work toward achieving the CPCS Vocation Related Qualification (VRQ). This will enable the operative to fast track the NVQ at Level 2.

1.2. Importance of Dump Truck Rigid Chassis Training

As part of the changes to the evolving process of training and qualification in construction, there are now some competency elements within other CPCS categories that provide license to operate mobile plant that require candidates to have one of the new dumper units. For example, under the new Excavator 360° category, a candidate who passed the Dump Truck Unit 1 signature item may complete a Loader FNV02. But rather than provide a restrictive link to other plant licenses, we have chosen to maintain the A56 and A57 categories as standalone dump truck units. From next year, we hope to stage the implementation of a forward tipping dump truck unit to run parallel with a review and update of CPCS materials for site and powered dumper units. This will maintain a clear choice for dump truck operators and additional employment opportunity for trainees in the construction and mineral extractives industries.

These are categorized as “rear tipping” where the body is hinged at the rear and elevated by hydraulic rams to tip the load on the ground behind the dumper. This is the most common method of loading various site dumpers with a single dumper or excavator. The other is known as “forward tipping” where the body is integral with the machine chassis power swivels and tips the body to discharge the load forwards from the dumper. This is typical of larger dump trucks usually of rigid chassis. The other method may be more mobile and versatile but the type of dump truck is most efficient and the most stable for work on quarrying and mining projects. Hence the A56 and A57 categories are aimed at drivers in these industries.

The dump truck remains one of the most capable earth moving items for volume removal of materials. Available in various configurations and numerous capacities, there are still only two different types of dumper to be encountered in the construction industry. All dump trucks articulate in the middle but two types in terms of body and load carrying configurations and the mode of clearing the discharge the body contents.

1.3. Course Objectives

To enable the candidate to: – Name and explain the purpose of principal components, the basic construction, controls, and terminology. – Conform with manufacturers’ requirements as per the operator’s handbook and other published instructions. – Undertake all pre-use checks. – Configure and set for travel and work, travel to and from the work area, and maneuver in confined areas. – Explain precautions to be taken for underground and overhead services and other excavations. – Separate and stack different types of materials in various conditions. – Extract and re-spread ground with the blade. – Load various materials into a dumper with an excavator or any other suitable equipment and transport them to a location to tip. Fully explain and demonstrate the use of a suitable loading ramp and the HSE requirements to design and manufacture the ramp for the dumper’s operator.

To provide thorough practical and theory training in operating forward tipping dumpers. By the end of the course, the operator will be fully aware of the construction, purpose, and use of the machine and be able to take up to the standard required to enable them to pass a CPCS Theory and Practical Technical Test.

2. Dump Truck Basics

The main components of this vehicle are: articulated (jointed) frame, adjustable height suspension, axle and wheels, differential steering, all-wheel drive, and hauling body. The most important component of this vehicle is the haul body. The haul body is designed to transport material from one place to another place. Usually, the capacity is about 30 to 100 tonnes, but the biggest capacity of this vehicle is up to 400 tonnes. This transformation process starts from loading with an excavator or shovel until dumping the material. When the haul body is already filled with material, this vehicle will move to the location where the materials will be dumped. And then the dumping process starts by lifting the body until it reaches an angle between 40-70° and the tailgate is opened by pulling the lever. With this process, the materials can be transported a certain distance. But, this operation process is not easy because the truck must be backed up to the edge, which can cause this vehicle to overturn. Usually, the good solution for this is building the labor to push the back of the truck. After the dumping process is finished, the haul body is returned to the initial position by lowering it slowly. But sometimes the body is slumped against the obstruction and the problem appears when releasing the load until the last materials can be released if the body is repeatedly raised and lowered.

A rigid dump truck is one very large truck in the mining environment. It has an integral engine and can be driven through remote control. It’s used for transporting materials such as dirt, coal, rocks, etc. from one place to another. It’s a very useful vehicle because sometimes there are no transporters that can be used on the soft and swampy ground. And it can transport the materials in any weather condition. Basically, the main job of this vehicle is to transport, that’s why this vehicle is not designed for loading the material itself and it only happens under certain conditions.

2.1. Dump Truck Components

The frame is the backbone of the machine. There are no major components mounted on the frame other than the rear axle. The cab is attached to the front area of the frame and the dump body is attached to the rear. The rear axle is part of a drive system that is covered later in this CBT. The cab is where the operator sits and controls the machine. When hauling material, operators must ensure they are stable and comfortable in the cab. Dumps with air-ride seats are preferred. Permanent damage can be done to the spines of operators if the ride is poor and the shocks are being transmitted into the cab. This is often the case on a machine that is nearing the end of its life cycle if the seat and cab mounts are worn. When the cab mounts are replaced, it is imperative to tighten or loosen the mounts with the frame and body in a loaded position. Failing to do this can result in mounts being torn apart when the machine is operating and in an unloaded position. An oscillating bearing is what allows this movement between the front and rear frame articulation and is a key focal point for greasing on the machine. Grease points are susceptible to rock and dirt contamination so it is good practice to always clean around the grease point before applying grease.

Dump truck components. This is a picture of a Caterpillar 725 articulated truck. Identifying the major components of this machine will be very similar to those of the rigid dump truck. The major difference will be that the rigid frame truck is one unit and the articulated truck has a hinge between the cab and the dump body. The major components for rigid frame dump trucks are covered in this section.

2.2. Dump Truck Operation

• Trucks with a front-mounted skip are loaded and unloaded in such a way as to move the skip thanks to its front wheels over the chassis. Certain types are fitted with a movable bottom or ejector-type mechanism. These vehicles are mostly used within the mining industry and have the capabilities to operate in smaller areas when compared to the standard rear dump truck. • The back of the truck body is hinged at the back and lifts to dump the contents out on the ground. It then uses a hydraulic arm to tilt the body to the front or side to be realigned with the chassis prior to returning to the load area. • The first step in the operation process is dependent on what method the truck is using to hoist the body. End and bottom dump trucks use a hydraulic ram/piston function, while elevated motorized drums require a winch or lever to lower.

2.3. Dump Truck Safety Guidelines

Wear a hard hat, safety shoes, and Hi-Vis on all sites. Keep clear of reversing vehicles. Get to know the truck. Read the operator’s manual. Use your seat belt when operating the articulation locking mechanism. You should understand its function and ensure daily that it is working correctly. The dump truck should be operated on slopes with the downhill end of the machine on the low side. On uphill or downhill running, it is better to have a loaded truck traveling uphill rather than downhill. Extra care must be taken when traveling on slippery or poor underfoot conditions. Remember: when tires begin to spin, they will continue to do so, consequently losing traction. The main cause of a body or truck tip over is too sharp a turn with a fully loaded body. As the truck turns, the rear wheels do not follow the front wheels and thus the inside rear wheel will go into a track left by the inside front wheel. This track allows the wheel to slip downhill and the truck will roll over the lower side. If a truck is heavily loaded or traveling up a steep slope, it may be advisable to use the body raise/lower function while turning to prevent body roll over. Always get to know site haul roads and their gradients and make a judgment on the best method to negotiate that road. This is very important to avoid dump truck roll over at any time during haul road use.

3. Rigid Chassis Design

The essential elements of a chassis are represented in a general material form starting with C-channel and rectangular tube for semi-rigid chassis, to further complex geometry in fully space frame chassis (e.g. Ralt RT3, Lola T8700). The space frame chassis will undergo design process using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method and choose from various materials that are being represented. This process involves fabricating and welding process that need to be precise to ensure no damage done to materials itself. The material choice for a race car chassis is crucial as it will determine other specific design of the race car and normally user would opt for high carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloy and aircraft grade titanium/magnesium. A race car chassis made of common steel will normally have greater weight than others resources but adequate strength and durability. High performance vehicle prefers to have chassis with high durability and lighter hence expensive materials are being implied. The design process of a chassis will require an engineer to take into account on chassis integrity and durability to ensure safety of driver by applying safety factors to account for static and dynamic forces. This will lead to design for specific chassis roll cage depending on category of the race car. Consideration on ergonomics and accessibility for driver to enter and exit vehicle might also influence the shift of control component masses relative to chassis itself. The key safety feature is in form of installing fire extinguishing equipment and safety fuel cell to prevent fire hazards.

3.1. Understanding Rigid Chassis Structure

Rigid chassis design is a complex design of steel material which is designed to hold the load and prevent it from vibrations to the seat and the driver. The wide steel plate which integrates between rear and upper frame is designed to support the load and prevent the sagging will occur. The cargo and the load will spread into wide area of chassis. The distance between rear and upper frame which is equal to the height of the tipper’s cylinder is designed to support the cylinder and prevent it from bad pressures which can bent the cylinder. The rest of the chassis structure is designed to support the cabin and the engine placement. Rigid chassis structure is differentiated into several design depends on the used of vehicle and the load. The variety of the design will make different type of rigidity and deflection of the chassis. Commonly the CPCS A57 Dump Truck using box girder type chassis. Box girder type chassis is rigid type design which difficult to deflected but it have weakness in shock absorptions. Understanding rigidity is a main concept in understanding the rigid chassis structure. Rigidity is a measure of the holding of a material to maintain its form under the load. A rigid material will have small deformation under the load. The CPS A57 rigidity need to preserve the dump truck form when lifting the cargo and when tilting the cargo to the ground. Too much deformation of the chassis will make imbalance pressures to the rear and upper frame and it damage the support structure of the tipper’s cylinder. So the rigidity must equal in all areas of the chassis. This is why box girder type chassis is the best choice for CPCS A57 dump truck because it is difficult to deflected where the rigidity is depends on the width of its plates and it will preserve the equal rigidity along the area. Although too much rigidity is also not good and make the chassis brittle and can broke by sudden shock. But the right rigidity will preserve the CPCS A57 dump truck in suggesting the light or heavy loads of the sands and stones.

3.2. Key Features of Rigid Chassis

Transmit engine power to road. Absorb road shock to give better ride to driver and load. Provide good road holding and stability to give driver and crew better working conditions. Good steering and a comfortable cabin. Step (1) must be satisfied to achieve the others but whilst it is relatively simple to measure the effects of engine power on vehicle performance, the relationship between chassis characteristics and vehicle performance is less clear. Long vehicles can be difficult to reverse in a straight line without jack-knifing because the trailer will force the drawing vehicle to turn if it is at an angle to the direction of movement. This is particularly a problem for off-highway dump trucks where space is restricted. With a steered front axle and a twistable chassis it is possible to improve manoeuvrability by making step (2) easier. Articulated dump truck designs have the same aim to package the load in an efficient way but achieve better manoeuvrability by allowing the load to pivot relative to the front vehicle. Rigid (solid) axles are the simplest way to provide step (2) because the axles will follow the contours of the road if the unsprung mass is large enough. Since off-highway vehicles operate on rough terrain it is common to provide step (2) with leaf spring suspension where the chassis is simply supported on the axles at four points. The use of independent suspension for step (2) is less common because it moves the problem to the unsprung mass which is more difficult to control. Step (3) can be achieved if the distance between the sprung mass and the unsprung mass is as small as possible so that the body movement caused by the unsprung mass is also small. This is difficult on rough terrain where ground clearance at the axles must be high. High ground clearance and step (3) both conflict with step (2) because vehicle stability is reduced on side slopes if the centre of gravity height is high and it is more difficult for a wheel to follow the contour of the road if there is a large suspension travel. Step (3) can also be improved with a lower inertia chassis and a computer controlled active suspension system but both of these solutions are costly. Step (4) can be improved with power assisted mechanical/hydraulic steering as opposed to fully hydraulic steering because the driver will not become fatigued as quickly. Being difficult or costly to measure on prototype, the relationship between chassis characteristics and vehicle performance often leads to a subjective or an ad-hoc approach to chassis design decisions. This may be sufficient for the purchase of a standard excavator when the dominant factor in the decision is often cost. It is inadequate for the purchase of a product which is a little different to the norm or the purchase of a machine for a specific task and is unsuitable for the purchase of a machine intended for long term use on a specific site, all of which require a customised chassis. In such cases it is beneficial to use a decision making process to ensure that the best overall solution is achieved. This requires a clear understanding of the relationships between chassis characteristics and vehicle performance.

3.3. Rigid Chassis Maintenance

Like other automotive vehicles, periodic maintenance and cleaning are effective ways to prevent corrosion damage to the entire chassis of the dump truck. The process begins with the cleaning of the chassis and components, it can be done during post-job, repair, and rebuild the system. Cleaning can prevent corrosion from occurring and controlling the parts that are already showing signs of corrosion. After cleaning, make sure all components have to be in a state of dryness and wear protective coating, one of them by using a lubricant and a special anti-rust paint for steel components. Periodic maintenance and routine performed at least one time in a year, preferably just before the heavy rain season. With the good weathering, the components have less chance to be exposed to rust and corrosion.

When the truck is not working and in idle position, continuously the components are damaged by corrosion. This is due to corrosion due to chemical effects of the environment when dump trucks operate. The affected components are unsightly and diminish the value of the vehicle, for example, fasteners, bodies, and hinge pins. Corrosion causes will hinder the operation of the components are replaced due to the condition of the damaged components. Failure of replacement may lead to the prevalence of unsafe work because the linkage pin can come off in the process of lifting and positioning of the tub tray. This can cause the crate to fall and slide the tray so that the material being transported is scattered.

As a prime mover, the dump truck is designed specifically to transport material from one location to another at an open-pit mining. Due to failure of any kind, such as the entire vehicle engine fails, steering system fails, braking system failed, or any part of the vehicle that affects the performance and safety of the vehicle has a high influence on unproductive activity, time-consuming, and harm the workers themselves.

The chassis is an important part of the dump truck as it carries everything that is mounted to the truck. The life and performance of the dump truck is dependent on the rigidity, strength, and maintenance of the chassis. By maintaining the chassis properly, good performance and safety of the dump truck can be achieved. The things that need to be considered for maintenance are cleaning, lubrication, painting, and repair of damage.

4. Dump Truck Loading and Unloading

Properly loaded, a dump truck can be both safe and more fuel efficient when handling specific types of materials. Articulated haul trucks are somewhat more forgiving when it comes to adverse loading techniques due to their ability to distribute weight between the tractor and the trailer, but a rigid truck must be loaded to spec if it is to perform correctly. Never overload a dump truck under any circumstances. It is an offense to drive an overloaded lorry and will almost always damage the truck. Ensure that you are using the correct type of truck for the work being performed. Lightweight, medium, and heavyweight dump trucks are designed to handle different sized loads. Ensure that the truck you are using matches the size of the load. Avoid any sharp turns or excessive braking when carrying a load. Remember, it may be hundreds of tonnes on a slippery surface. Both could tip the truck if the load is unevenly distributed. If you must cross a slope with a loaded truck, always cross at an angle with the load facing up or down the slope. Try to avoid driving across the slope as this drastically increases the chances of a roll-over. Edge berms should be avoided, and if a cut or fill is over 0.6m, it should be sloped or benched back to an angle of 4:1 to prevent collapse. The excavation process should always begin at the top of a cut and work downwards. By avoiding the need to travel uphill with a load, fuel efficiency is maintained, and the chances of a truck rollover are minimized. When it comes to unloading, there is no reason to use a ramp unless the area is inaccessible by any other means. Ejector type dump bodies are best for unloading on soft, level ground and are able to push the load out with minimal risk of tipping the truck. Regular dump bodies are better suited to short haul work where material is being transported from one site to another as the body is able to carry more. Drop bottom bodies are good for spreading materials and open pit work but have high maintenance costs and a high risk of premature dumping due to corrosion at the pivot joint. When dumping materials on a stockpile, remember to always blade it out at the back to avoid a double pass with the dump truck.

4.1. Proper Loading Techniques

The ideal approach to loading a dump truck is across a flat, level surface. Often, though, this is not feasible and the loader will have to follow the truck up and down slopes. A sloping surface not only affects the balance of the machine and the vehicle, making it less stable, but will also affect the truck’s travel speed when loaded. A truck should ideally be able to maintain a speed of 8 km/h on a flat, firm surface when loaded. This initial assessment of the conditions can make the task of getting the truck loaded safely and efficiently much easier. Another key factor in loading the truck is determining the correct position for it to be left once loaded. The ideal position for the truck once loaded is with its box vertical and the suspension settled approximately halfway. This should ensure the truck is well balanced when driven and that all material is cleared from the box when the tailgate is released. The truck should therefore be loaded in a position which allows it to move as little distance as possible and in a direction where the machine will not have to travel over material which has already been placed in the box. This situation, however, is often not achievable on site.

4.2. Unloading Procedures

4.2.1 “Unload Too Fast” Condition This condition is recognized by the “free fall” of the dump body uncontrolled by the hoist. The body “bounces” when reaching the end of the stroke resulting in severe impact forces being transmitted to the truck frame and hoist mountings. Severe damage to the truck can be expected and a shortened hoist and body life will result. If the load is “sticky” and difficult to release, the driver may be tempted to raise the body to its maximum angle and suddenly lower the hoist control lever allowing the body to free fall. This practice is an abuse of the hoist and can cause damage to the hoist transmission and the truck transmission as the impact forces are being transmitted through the truck frame. With automatic and power shift transmissions there is an additional risk of over speeding the transmission and engaging the torque converter unlocking the transmission drives. This is a risky maneuver that can be very dangerous. Recommended procedure: Raising the body to maximum angle and inching the truck forward while repeatedly actuating the body raise control will result in minimal added stress to the hoist and maximum force applied on the load. With a properly adjusted hoist and using the “float position” on the control, the body will lower and raise with the movement of the truck allowing the load to be gradually “peeled off” the body. This will result in an efficient unloading operation and no need for aggressive and risky hoist control maneuvers.

By following a proper unloading procedure, the operator ensures an efficient dump truck operation and reduces premature hoist failure caused by “shock loading.” Avoid “unloading too fast” and “hoist and body collision.”

4.3. Handling Different Types of Materials

It is a rare occasion when a dump truck will be employed to transport one type of material. Many times the operator is given a project that requires the truck to haul a combination of materials. Knowing how to handle the different types of loads is a key factor in operating the dump truck. The operator must know how to adjust the truck’s operating techniques to the different loads; otherwise the efficiency and productivity of the truck will be greatly reduced. This can result in the operator causing damage to the truck and even to himself due to a lack of understanding of the truck’s limitations and capabilities while handling a specific load. Operators must also realize that the accurate and safe completion of the task can only come through sequencing a number of distinct operations. These operations have similar general requirements. However, they will change significantly according to the type of material being handled. The general operations of filling, transporting and dumping the load are the same and are covered in the CPCS.

5. Dump Truck Maneuvering

Reversing, a seemingly simple and routine task, is notorious for accidents and can be extremely hazardous with reduced visibility to the rear and often close proximity to workers on foot. The rate of fatal injury for a vehicle reversing is approximately 16 times the rate for one moving forward. Backspears on the pusher type and rear tipping dump trucks have a high potential for serious incidents or entrapment between the rear of the body and a fixed object/person. An alternative dump method or traffic control measures to restrict vehicle movements to certain one-way routes can improve overall site safety by limiting the requirement for reversing.

Poorly executed steering and turning techniques are a common cause of overturns and tip-overs, so it is essential that operators are trained and fully understand the handling capabilities of their machine. Ejector type dump trucks with automatic body return systems have improved safety and site efficiency when compared to manual systems and are far superior to rear tipping machines in tight working environments where adequate turning space is not available. Always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines, and if in doubt when trying to articulate a method of safe and efficient turning, always consult your supervisor or site manager.

There are a number of steering techniques that can be used, but particular care must be taken when considering the gradient of the site. On adverse cambers, when vehicle stability is critical, it may be best to turn downhill even if this means making a longer journey. When using 3 point turns or similar (i.e. turning off a narrow road with restricted space), always turn the vehicle downhill. It’s much safer. In most situations where a loaded dump truck is required to turn, a wide lock-to-lock turning angle will be needed. It is advised that the differential lock is engaged to improve traction and reduce damage to the ground from wheel spin. When negotiating obstacles or traveling on adverse ground, the articulated dump truck is superior to the rigid machine, given that the load is carried between the front and rear wheels. For all types of dump trucks, the loaded vehicle is less maneuverable with greater potential for damage and poorer safety (Figure 6). Care must be taken to position the body correctly and reduce the risk of the rear wheels running over the edge of cambers. Use of tire chains can increase traction and reduce lateral slippage when steering on adverse slopes.

5.1. Steering and Turning Techniques

With the articulated dump truck, the turning mechanism is via the turntable which allows the wagon to pivot relative to the tractor unit. However, with the forward tipping dumper, the turning behavior is all down to the front wheels. The rear wheels of the dumper simply follow the track of the front wheels, which in a soft or loose surface can often lead to the rear of the dumper swinging out to the inside of the turn. This may cause a jack-knife situation as the front wheels are prevented from sliding sideways due to the resistance offered by the load in the skip. To prevent this from happening, a competent driver will select the correct gear for the speed of the turn and slow the machine down using the service brake and downshifting where necessary. He will then steer the dumper in a series of S-shaped curves, thus avoiding any sharp changes in direction which may cause a loss of control at the rear of the machine. The driver can also use a technique called “flick steering”. This is an over-exaggerated steering action in the opposite direction to the intended turn, which causes the dumper to slow and stop the swinging action of the rear end. This is a very effective technique but should only be used on a straight or near straight section of a turn, as it will cause the machine to change direction and go straight ahead. Using steering and turn methods such as these will reduce tire and transmission wear and is crucial in preventing vehicle roll over in adverse conditions. The Co-packaged Product Detector (CPD) is a new braking system fitted to some dump trucks that prevents tire slippage and wheel lock by automatically modulating air pressure on the rear wheels to match the rate at which the forward momentum of the truck is causing them to rotate. This device significantly improves steering control of the dumper, particularly in slippery conditions.

5.2. Backing Up Safely

When backing up with a loaded body, the bed must be raised to a sufficient angle to ensure full clearance between the bed and tires when turning for adequate maneuverability. This is due to the fact that loaded dump trucks are either front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. Therefore, when reversing on an incline, the loaded weight at the front will cause the drive wheels to spin and overload conditions on drivetrain components leading to premature failure. Premature tire wear will also result from turning when reversing with the bed too low. Full steering in reverse will be required when backing up a loaded dump truck to a stockpile, street dumping, or maneuvering around tight corners. Remember to always obey the appropriate speed and usage regulations for a backup alarm as they do vary between regions.

When backing up with an empty body, the backup alarm must be audible above the surrounding noise level and must emit a beeping sound. When the truck is in reverse, the alarm will sound and the amber warning light on top of the cab will start flashing. The backup alarm and warning light must conform to Health and Safety Commission (HSC) publication 253. Operators should ensure that they are clearly seen and heard before reversing. When backing up to a stockpile, dozing area, etc., the best practice is to spread the material in a manner which will allow forward pushing when spreading the next layer.

5.3. Negotiating Obstacles

One thing to always bear in mind is that the dump truck has a high centre of gravity and the load increases the overall height of the machine. This being the case, the truck has a limited ground clearance under the rear chassis and also beneath the skip when in the raised position. Therefore, the truck at times may become high-centred on the obstacle. This can be a dangerous situation as the truck’s stability is seriously compromised. Special attention must be given to the avoidance of high centring and also to achieving the correct angle of approach to the obstacle as this will affect the stability of the machine throughout the manoeuvre.

This section discusses particular challenging situations that may be presented when the dump truck encounters an obstruction on the haul road. While some of the techniques may be familiar from steering and turning and backing up, some are unique to dealing with fixed obstacles.

6. Dump Truck Safety Practices

6.1. Pre-Operation Inspection Conducting a pre-shift walk around is proven to reduce the amount of incidents and injuries. By making sure that all systems, safety devices, presses, tires, and working area are clear of personnel, you can make a big difference in preventing injuries to yourself and other workers. This also ensures that the equipment is maintained and ready for use and will increase its service life. The operator should always conduct a visual and auditory self-test of the primary and secondary steering system before operating the truck. A steering system that is compromised in any way can be catastrophic to the operator and other workers around the truck. A visual or auditory inspection of the brake controls, transmission and park mechanisms, service, secondary, and parking brakes should also be conducted to identify any potential hazards created by system malfunctions. This inspection should be performed in a level, clear area with the dump body lowered and the wheels chocked. In addition, these inspections should be documented on a form that is reviewed and filed by a maintenance supervisor to ensure that any identified issues are addressed before the equipment is used again.

Dump trucks have lots of safety zone issues due to their size and weight. They have a high center of gravity which leads to the potential for tipping over. They may be required to back up into or go forward in areas where other workers are at work. This can lead to injury to other workers if the truck driver does not see them and cause a collision. Spotters should be used when backing up in areas where other workers are present. Unauthorized persons should not be allowed in the dump truck work area. Dump trucks are also characterized by fully automatic self-loading with air actuated hydraulic hoists and an open body bed. The use of the automatic load release or tailgate can be hazardous to personnel working in or around the bed of the truck. Dual or multiple control actions can lead to unintended movement of the hoist. Planned operations need to address these known safety hazards specific to the equipment and implement the necessary training and safe work procedures to protect workers.

6.1. Pre-Operation Inspection

Truck walk-around inspection: The final step in the pre-op inspection is to make a walk around the truck, checking the machine over for any faults or potential hazards. It is common to prepare a small notepad to take around the truck, as this will give the operator a chance to systematically check the machine. Starting from the front of the truck and working towards the rear, the operator should be checking for any oil leaks, damage, or wear to the components of the truck. This will include the front and rear axles, hub, and final drives. Next, the operator should perform the same check on both sides of the truck, taking note of any problems as they go. This inspection will help to diagnose problems before they become major safety hazards or downtime for the truck.

Cab inspection: The first thing that the operator should do when he has entered the cab is to put on the seat belt. This is a simple yet effective operator safety device that is widely neglected amongst dump truck operators. The operator should then ensure that the horn and steering controls are in good order, so that the operator is able to give clear and concise warnings to personnel in the vicinity of the truck. Turning the wheel and operating the horn will generally suffice to ensure that these controls are in good working order. The next step is to start the truck and check the dashboard for warning lights, as these may indicate faults or problems with the truck.

Approaching the machine: Many dump truck accidents involving personnel occur when the operator is unaware that someone is in close proximity to the truck. To avoid this, an operator should always approach the truck from the front, as this will give the best possible vision to movement in the vicinity of the truck. This will also give the operator a chance to develop a habit of entering the machine through the steps provided, as opposed to jumping in from the ground.

The dump truck is a big and hazardous piece of equipment. Through the course of its working life, many people will work around or operate the truck. Learning the correct pre-operation procedures is essential to getting the most out of the course and knowledge gained. It will teach the candidates how to correctly approach the dump truck and ensure that it is safe to operate. This section can be best broken down into several key points.

6.2. Safe Driving Practices

Driving in wet or slippery conditions increases the likelihood of losing control of the truck. Extra precautions should be taken to ensure safe arrival at the destination. This may include more frequent use of the service brakes to reduce speed, which will also keep the air pressure up in the braking system. Reduce the speed when tipping the load and ensure that the ground underfoot is not wet or too steep. If there are doubts about the stability of the truck when tipping, do not tip. You must always feel that you are in complete control of the vehicle.

Reduce the speed when traveling around corners. This will reduce the risk of tipping over. Avoid sudden application of the steering when traveling at speed. This could result in a loss of control and/or a skid. It is important to reduce speed when traveling over bumpy ground and also when the loaded truck is traveling downhill to prevent the load from shifting and the truck from gaining too much speed. Always keep a safe distance from other vehicles, especially when traveling in reverse. Always be on the lookout for other vehicles coming into your path. They might not have seen you. When traveling in reverse, always ensure that the area is clear of people or objects that you could injure or damage. If in doubt about the safety of reverse travel, pull a face in the direction of intended travel until it is possible to travel forwards to the destination.

6.3. Emergency Procedures

The course instructor delivers a general safety talk and makes reference to the location of the fire extinguisher, first aid facilities, and emergency assembly point. The learner is expected to take note of these locations. On every item of plant, there are emergency escape procedures and key locations that must be memorized by the operator. A theoretical explanation of these procedures will be given, and the learner will be required to demonstrate their knowledge in the practical operating environment. Should the plant operator be involved in or a witness to an accident or injury affecting themselves or others, they must immediately stop work and make the area safe. They are then to inform their supervisor or any other person in the chain of responsible management, making a strong effort to ensure the situation is recorded and reported. An understanding and compliance with these procedures is part of good operating practice, and the safety and awareness of an operator will be regularly assessed throughout the plant operator development.

7. Dump Truck Maintenance

– Operate the dump truck on level ground, lower the body, and turn off the engine. – Clean the area around filler caps to prevent contamination. – Add specified fluid to raise the level to the filler cap plug. – Replenish or change the specified oil within the time limit for every specified amount of working hours.

7.2 Fluid Levels and Lubrication

To facilitate routine maintenance to be carried out on time, it is necessary to plan and monitor maintenance activities. This should involve the preparation of a maintenance schedule based on the dump truck manufacturer’s recommendations. The dump truck should be made available at the required time, and maintenance should be carried out in a proper manner. This can be done using a maintenance checklist to record the details and condition of the equipment, date defects found, and the date when repairs were carried out.

7.1 Routine Maintenance Checks

It is very rare that defects on a dump truck that cause accidents occur without warning. Most of these will be discovered during regular maintenance and can be rectified before an accident occurs. So, it is important for the driver to report any defects to the supervisor or person responsible for maintenance immediately. Defects reported and repairs made should be recorded in the dump truck’s maintenance history file.

Contractors who allow a dump truck to deteriorate into a bad state of repair are not only breaking the law, they are also causing themselves unnecessary expense. It is essential to maintain the dump truck to a condition where it is free from defects that could cause an accident. This can be achieved by systematic inspection, maintenance, and repairs.

Section 7: Dump Truck Maintenance

7.1. Routine Maintenance Checks

Daily checks are ideal for shifts where there are multiple operators. A new operator will take responsibility for mobile equipment that has been thoroughly checked by the previous operator. If a defect is detected or if the plant has been involved in an incident, do not use the equipment until the defect has been rectified, the plant has been standardized, and where applicable, an authorization to return to service is issued by the site supervisor.

It is important that this type of equipment is serviced regularly by competent mechanics/engineers. A maintenance task manual can be used by service personnel to assist with scheduled servicing of plant equipment. It contains method statements to verify the equipment is shut down safely, isolation of energy sources, removal of components/panels, and safe operational checks. These method statements can be applied to the development of a risk-based assessment together with a safe work method statement.

The purpose of the safety file is to develop a site-specific document that contains relevant information pertaining to the safe use, inspection, and maintenance of plant equipment. This information has been taken from the manufacturer’s recommendations, best practice, and legislative requirements in relation to plant operations. The safety file can be applied to mobile plant equipment under 21 tonnes and is designed for small to medium-sized businesses who have mobile plant equipment or are contractors within the civil engineering industry. Please click here (coming soon) for details on how to purchase a copy. If you are a larger organization or larger contractor, it is recommended that you develop a site-specific safety file, with documents that are stored both electronically and hardcopy with controlled version on an intranet and regular system of technical document review.

In addition to keeping a clean cab and body, the operator should carry out routine maintenance checks on a daily, weekly, monthly, and periodic basis. The following are those checks that are relevant to a visual inspection of the chassis, body, or equipment. These checks can be used in the development of a plant safety file or a maintenance task manual. They may also be used by operators as a method of familiarization to become proficient in the safe and effective operation of the equipment.

7.2. Fluid Levels and Lubrication

CPCS A57 Dump Truck Rigid Chassis Course 7.2. Fluid Levels and Lubrication General The hydraulic system is high pressure and can cause injuries due to pinhole leaks, so the area around the hydraulic tank fillers should be kept clean. To avoid incorrect lubrication and to protect the environment and waste lubricant, it is important to carry out the procedures to check the fluid levels and lubricate the components. Carry out all maintenance on level ground with the body lowered and supported on its stops, with safety chocks on the wheels and the engine off. Hydraulic System Locate the main hydraulic tank, check the tank level gauge and fill or drain the tank as necessary. Use clean water-free oil to power the system’s jacking cylinders and drain the tank from the lower drain plug. Refill the tank to the right level with the engine running to release any trapped air and cycle the body up and down for full air release. Top up the transmission oil as necessary.

7.3. Troubleshooting Common Issues

Hydraulic System: Low hydraulic function is generally due to air in the system. Check for oil contamination, wear of the pump, loose mounting of the pump, worn engine drive, worn hydraulic valves, worn motor or cylinder. This can be diagnosed by checking the hydraulic oil flow against specifications using flowmeters. A quick check can be made by removing the suspected hose and running the system to observe the oil flow. If the oil flow is good, then the probable problem is a blocked, crimped or defective hose. If oil flow is suspected to be low, then the hose can be removed at a more convenient place to determine if the hose is defective. This can be diagnosed by checking the hydraulic oil flow against specifications using flowmeters. A pump test can be made to assess the condition of the pump on systems with oil flow and pressure. The pump is connected to a flow and pressure gauge and run at maximum speed to compare results with the manufacturer’s pump characteristic data.

8. Dump Truck Operator Responsibilities

Environmental Considerations Learning outcomes for environmental considerations are incorporated into the specific duties related to the operation of the dump truck at the given level. This will create an understanding of the impact caused by poor operation and also the increased productivity which can be achieved by carrying out a specific task in the correct manner.

Communication and Teamwork During the course, the candidate will be encouraged to communicate with banksman, plant supervisor, and other plant operators. This will develop an understanding of site communication methods and also a greater understanding of the needs of others involved in the movement and placement of material.

Rig mounted dump truck operators will also be able to: a) Travel to and from a specific site. b) Develop a tip area and position machine for disposal. c) Stockpile material and build ramps for loading. d) Load materials into tipper body. e) Carry out alternate dumping methods. f) Push off and build to design levels. g) Carry out stockpiling and finish with safe machine parking.

Upon completion of the CPCS Theory Element for the Dump Truck (A56 & A57), the operator will be able to: a) Observe the necessary safety precautions. b) Start and stop the dump truck and prepare for travelling. c) Operate on a prepared driving. d) Conduct machine shut down and securing procedures. e) Conduct minor operations. f) Maintain safe and tidy working area.

Operator duties and responsibilities specific to machine operation and task

8.1. Understanding Operator Duties

Operator’s duties are to obey the direction of the banksman, use the designated route only, correctly position the truck for loading, followed with the correct loading procedure. Once loaded, the driver should travel in reverse and report to the banksman using correct radio procedures. Know and understand site Health and Safety rules, never endangering themselves or other persons and to know what is expected from others as they are responsible to ensure the safety of other site operatives. Drivers should regularly inspect the condition of their dumper and its components, ensuring that it remains safe and serviceable at all times. They should know and understand the basic principles for risk prevention, avoiding costly enforcement actions by actively practicing safer methods. At risk of stating the obvious, communication is the performance of sending and receiving information. Good communication is vital in any workplace and the A57 operator will find himself an essential part of the communication process on a construction site. This will include some or all of the following: obtaining and/or exchanging information with the banksman and/or other site operatives, reporting hazards or irregular site conditions to their superior, or relaying information timely and accurately which they have learned at a pre-site induction. An A57 operator should always communicate effectively in English and will be expected to understand clear instructions given to them in English. Indirect forms of communication such as body language or written messages must be clear and fully understood by all parties for which they are intended.

8.2. Communication and Teamwork

Working as part of a successful team is essential to the operator as good communication practices are developed. The operator must understand the purpose, the usual routine, and who does what in his team to fully work as a team. The operator must integrate the drill and blast plan with the loading tool to efficiently move the material from source to destination. This can reduce the amount of rehandling and reduce the amount of load and haul required. The dump truck can work in various states alongside different types of loading tools, the operator must effectively communicate what is required from the loading tool to prevent any machine overloading or waiting time. When loading and dumping, particularly in a stockpiling operation, the truck and loading tool operator must form a good method of communication to ensure the truck is positioned to take the loads in the correct area and tip in the correct position. This will mean that the loading tool does not have to handle the material more than necessary. Material which is dumped in the wrong position will have to be handled again to get it to the required location. Time can be wasted and unnecessary rehandling costs incurred if the truck and loading tool do not have proper communication. Typically, the loading tool must thrust the truck to dump a load so that the truck is not pushing the load uphill with the truck engine at full throttle. This can cause excessive wear and fuel costs.

8.3. Environmental Considerations

The management of spoil can often be one of the more complex and demanding aspects of operating a dump truck on a construction site. Spoil and waste from the site can often be contaminated and require special disposal. The operator must ensure that all waste is disposed of correctly and in the designated locations. Waste that is disposed of incorrectly and left to migrate can result in unfavorable long-term effects. When dumping spoil, the operator must also be aware and avoid any damage to underground services or installations and stability of the ground in the vicinity. If the ground in the vicinity is unstable or the dump is near an embankment, there is a chance that a landslide may occur. It will be the operator’s responsibility to ensure that such a dump is well signed and barricaded.

Another major responsibility when operating dump trucks on construction sites is to consider the environment. The operator must ensure that they avoid any damage to the environment or natural habitats. There is a legal responsibility on all construction sites to properly manage spoil and waste and prevent contamination of water sources. The Water Resources Act 1991, Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000, and the Environment Agency’s Policy and Information Note for the Waste Industry “PPC and waste” (Version 2 2004) will all provide information on law relating to the environment. Failure to adhere to laws and guidelines stated in these documents will often result in prosecution.

9. Dump Truck Regulations and Compliance

Compliance with regulations should be thoroughly implemented, a lot of work will be grass roots level with training and this is likely to be most effective. Large corporations may wish to appoint or employ professionals or consultants in health and safety and there are numerous courses and qualifications that they or any moderator could pursue to become a safety practitioner. This can range from general administration skills, to a more comprehensive course building up to a NEBOSH certificate. The National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health was formed in 1979 as an awarding body with charitable status. It offers a comprehensive range of globally-recognised qualifications designed to meet the health, safety and environmental management needs of all places of work. At times the NEBOSH general certificate has been seen as an essential requirement for a health and safety job, it would be a valuable resource and help for compliance to those working with dump trucks in any industry.

These regulations often apply to specific areas and can be topic-specific. An example is the Confined Spaces Regulations 1997, that have been a big issue for water and sewage companies using articulated dump trucks. This is subject to the dangers involved with the possibility of the dump truck entering a trench of which the sides could collapse and bury the operator. The law requires the avoidance entry to a confined space i.e. using different method of work, i.e. to avoid using dump trucks in these situations would prevent risk of those who drive them. When it is not possible to avoid entry, a risk assessment should be performed and all precautions taken to ensure the safety of operatives.

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in Great Britain. It’s a very important act for employers and workers. This act has led to development of the many regulations specific to certain industries.

Under current legislation, operators of dump trucks are expected to work within the law and adhere to legal requirements. CPCS training would be classed as a legal requirement as CPCS has been proven to be the best qualification for plant operators. Jobs would be subject to health and safety manufacturing legislation, and dump truck operators should be qualified to NVQ level. These qualifications prove that workers have had adequate training and can competently do their job. At the workplace rules for vehicles and drivers, state that vehicles and equipment should be suitable for the job i.e. the correct size and materials for the terrain. Employers are responsible for ensuring that workers hold a suitable driving licence for the vehicle being operated. Relevant to dump trucks, it should be in good condition and drivers should be licensed to drive heavy goods vehicle. This can all cause problems for the quarry or construction company, not only in ensuring the laws are met but the cost, downtime and unfamiliarity with current legislation can be conducive to overlooking them and ultimately prosecution.

9.1. Legal Requirements for Dump Truck Operation

Dump trucks come in a variety of forms, and each carries its own set of legal obligations and safety standards. There are four main types of dump truck, of which the Rigid Chassis is the simplest, consisting of a platform with a dump body mounted onto it. The Articulated Chassis is steered by hydraulic rams allowing for a much tighter turning circle. The largest and most common dump truck is the Site Dumper, primarily used for the transportation of materials on building sites. The final type is the Semi-trailer Truck, usually used for long haul in open cast mines to move large quantities of overburden. Each has its own specific legislation, but many of the safety considerations are the same. In an effort to minimize any negative impact on the environment, the EPA currently has a program in place to reduce harmful emissions from diesel engines. This, to some extent, has been incorporated into the European standard for certain machinery. The engine of the dump truck is its main power source, and it is essential to have this and the transmission system well maintained to reduce the risk of fire, which could have serious consequences. The noise emitted from powered machinery can cause long-term hearing damage. Dump trucks are noisy by nature, and although there are no specific regulations of noise levels for them, they could be restricted from working in certain areas due to other legislation on building sites near residents.

9.2. Compliance with Health and Safety Standards

Compliance with health and safety standards is very important for maintaining legally compliant status. There are many health and safety regulations around equipment, but a central compliance point is the CE safety mark or its equivalent. This mark shows that the product it is attached to is legal and safe for use in European work environments. The dump truck has to comply with various EU directives to attain the CE mark. The machinery directive states that equipment should be designed and constructed so that it is safe for the operator, for those in the vicinity and to any bystanders. Measures should also be taken to ensure that the machinery can be used safely with minimal risk to health. This directive is put in place to ensure that equipment in the EU is safe to use and does not pose a threat to users. The dump truck will also have to comply with health and safety standards imposed in the use of equipment in relation to specific industries. In the case of the dump truck, this would most likely be in a quarrying or mining environment. This may involve additional requirements to ensure the safety of the operator and to minimize any risk posed to neighboring workers. Failure to comply with said standards could result in costly litigation and compensation claims if an accident were to occur.

9.3. Reporting and Documentation

Repair cost is the most expensive form of maintenance activity and is often the most difficult to control. Realistic and competitive tendering from external contractors requires a clear and accurate specification of the work. An internal repair should be treated in a similar manner to ensure that all direct and indirect costs are identified. Establishment of a repair order system will provide a means of authorizing repair work on the basis of the value of work and priority. A standard repair order form can be used to document all relevant details of the work and costs incurred. On completion of the work, the form can be used to compare the actual costs and downtime against an estimate, to establish the cost-effectiveness of the repair.

The preparation of a daily pre-start checklist for operators to complete is a simple and effective method of ensuring that all essential safety and maintenance checks are conducted. This checklist usually consists of a table of items to be checked with a column for the operator to mark the status of each item and a comments column. Any defects or problems noted can then be followed up with an inspection and appropriate maintenance activity. Frequency of completion and standard of record-keeping can be monitored through periodic checks of checklists for completeness and legibility. A simple filing system can be implemented, using a filing cabinet or folder with a section for each unit and for plant in the case of large operations. Checklists can then be filed by date of completion. An alternative method is to enter the checklists into a computerized maintenance management system and store hard copies in a central file.

Reporting and documentation of operating, servicing, and repair activities are essential components for maintenance management. The specific nature and detail of the records will vary between operations, so the following is a list of common functions and features. Many operations will combine the use of a number of these systems to provide an integrated maintenance management system.

10. Conclusion

On successful completion of the test, the candidate will be able to: 1. Describe the nature of the sector of work and the role and responsibilities of a plant operator. 2. Name and explain the purpose of principle components, the basic construction, controls, and terminology. 3. Conform with manufacturer’s requirements as per maintenance instruction manual and other regulations (LOLER PUWER). 4. Undertake all pre-use checks. 5. Configure and set for travel. 6. Travel over rough, undulating ground, steep inclines, and level surfaces. 7. Maneuver in confined areas. 8. Configure and set for lifting and transferring operations. 9. Explain actions required for hazards underground and overhead. 10. Lifting and transferring between wagons and/or stowing and/or backfilling. 11. Explain the loading and unloading procedures on and off a transporter. 12. Keep within safe working parameters. 13. Explain the loading and unloading procedures on and off the transporter. 14. Minimize environmental impact.

Recap of key concepts

10.1. Recap of Key Concepts

NPORS and CPCS Card. For an operator with a CPCS or NPORS card, the A57 dump truck rigid chassis course can be added to it so it shows that the operator is competent in using a dump truck. This would make the operator more desirable to an employer.

NPORS – National Plant Operators Registration Scheme. This is another qualification that plant operators can get in order to prove their competence in using machinery. NPORS is an alternative to CPCS. The difference between the two is that within CPCS, the plant operator must complete a theory test and pass a health and safety touch screen test. NPORS requires the operator to complete a theory test but no health and safety touch screen test. In addition, within NPORS, the plant operator can be trained and assessed by the same person. This is different from CPCS as it requires the plant operator to be trained by one person and assessed by another. Overall, the qualification is very similar to a CPCS card.

A70 – CPCS Red Card. This is the plant operator’s card. Within the framework of CPCS, there are also various endorsements that operators can gain. This is dependent on the type of machinery that the operator is using. For instance, an operator using a forward tipping dumper could gain the endorsement of A56 Dumper, which would be shown on the front of his/her operator card.

10.2. Importance of Continuous Learning

Just because you have completed the theory and practical tests for the operational side of the CPCS A56 Dump Truck Articulated Chassis does not mean that you can rest on your laurels and never learn anything again. The Construction Plant Competence Scheme has been put into place to create a safe and efficient environment for all plant operatives across the construction industry. Continuous learning is an important concept throughout life to obtain and maintain currency of competence, it is a personal responsibility for all individuals to remain professionally competent and there are many different forms of learning available from on the job learning, training courses, examinations, private study and development of new skills. The CPCS does not expect everyone who has attained a certification to stay in the role that they were certified in for the rest of their lives, we understand that people’s career objectives change over the course of time and there may be a need for them to learn a new role and gain different certifications. It is important to make a personal training plan and to review your own training progress, this can assure that you get to where you want to be in your career and identify your goals. It is a good idea to keep the plans and records of your competence as this can help to identify the job opportunities in your career and is useful evidence for current or potential employers. Competence can naturally deplete over time if skills and knowledge are not used and maintained, today’s plant operatives usually have job mobility and erratic career patterns which can affect skill retention. Any gaps in employment may result in a loss of certification which may require re-training and re-testing, it is a good idea to stay in touch with the CPCS and have a support network to identify any need to retrain. Any changes to plant and equipment are another obvious factor why learning is important to maintain safety and efficiency, changes can often mean uncertified operatives can cause damage or harm due to unfamiliarity of new attachments and features. Finally, continuous learning is an ethical requirement for individuals and a professional code of conduct for companies to provide a safe working environment for all people who may be affected by their actions.

10.3. Course Completion and Certification

Once the candidate has completed his/her theory test, practical training and had some experience operating a 360-degree excavator, they are ready to undertake their technical test. We recommend the candidate has a minimum of 1-2 years operating experience. The technical test will last for approximately 2 hours. We would conduct the technical test at the candidate’s place of work, providing that the test area meets CPCS accreditation requirements. If this is not possible, we can arrange a suitable test area. The technical test will start with the candidate pulling a SAFed pre-shift inspection on a 360-degree excavator to prove they have a good understanding of safety requirements. The candidate will then move on to tasks, which involve using the excavator to load and/or secure loads onto transportation devices. They will be given a choice of load shovel, telehandler, or excavator tasks. The candidate will also be tested on their base Machine Environment to give them a red or blue card for a 360-degree excavator. Within 7-10 working days, the candidate will receive news of their test result. If the candidate has been successful, the operator will then receive a red CPCS Trained Operator Card, which is valid for 2 years. During this time, it is recommended that the operator undertakes their NVQ Level 2 in Plant Operations to enable them to upgrade to a blue CPCS Competence Card. If the candidate has already achieved NVQ Level 2, they can apply for the blue card straight away. If the candidate was unsuccessful, they may undergo a 1-day ‘CPCS Test Preparation’ course at a discounted rate, provided that the test is retaken within a 3-month period from the original test.