CPCS A63 Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane Course

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The aim of the Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane Course is to provide the candidate with the basic knowledge and practical skills involved in operating a Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane safely and correctly. On successful completion of the course, candidates will be able to erect, dismantle and configure the crane in space restricted environments. They will also be able to carry out routine inspections and complete the necessary documentation to ensure the crane remains safe and serviceable for use. Finally, candidates will develop the skills to become safer, more efficient operators, being able to control loads more confidently, accurately and economically. The training meets the statutory requirements of the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974, and other relevant statutory provisions and Approved Codes of Practice. It also includes ‘The Safe Use of Cranes Information’ provided by Construction Industry Publications and endorsed by the Health & Safety Executive. This course is not a CPCS assessment. At the end of the theory training, each candidate will take a theory test, and those who pass will receive a CITB National Construction College certificate. Because part of the learning outcome for this course is to familiarise candidates with the relevant sections of the code of practice and the information on the construction plant competence scheme managed by CITB, we strongly advise that the CPCS A60 questions are taken within a month of completing the CPCS A60 course. Candidates will gain experience using 3B1 Pedestrian Operated cranes for the majority of this course, but the course may include candidates who wish to use a 3B3 or 3B4 Pedestrian Operated cranes in which case additional training will be given to familiarise candidates with the different controls and capabilities.

1.1 Course Overview

This course is for the operators of Pedestrian Operated Tower Cranes (Self-erecting, Mobile Tower, Luffing Jib Tower cranes). It provides candidates with the basic core skills and knowledge required to operate the cranes and sets them on the road to achieving a NVQ in plant operations. The A61 is an integrated training and assessment (ITA) course which will provide candidates with the foundations of operating tower cranes in the construction industry. A61 CPCS course is split between 7 different types of cranes; once you have achieved the A61 Appointed persons training and gained further practical experience, you can upgrade to the different types of Tower Crane through an ITA. With this in mind, the A63 course provides candidates with the basic essential skills and underpinning knowledge required prior to advancement in type of self-erecting, tower and luffing jib cranes. Due to being an ITA course there is no theory testing, it is all based on the successful completion of the question and answer sheets and practical scenarios. This is a novice course and CPCS have lead the way in industry by developing the very first training course with no theory test. This is the direction in which all plant courses will go, a big influence being the CITB Site Safety Plus courses. In today’s construction industry there is a big push for a fully competent workforce with qualifications. However employers are seeing a massive increase in the qualification costs (in particular operator cards). This has had a profound effect on securing a fully qualified and competent workforce with some employers having to release skilled workers back into the job market, so they can replace them with cheaper labour, paid cash in hand. This can be a dangerous practice with unqualified plant operators risking their lives and putting others at risk, as well as cost from fines and higher insurance. In many cases profit making plant operations have never had formal training. CPCS is a safe way to ensure continued operator competence with a proven method of operator assessment. So as more and more workers are being asked to fund their own training, it was decided that the best financial option for the candidate and the employer, would be a no theory test version of the course. At present candidates on passing the A61 theory test, have to wait before taking the practical test. They do this by revising at home and can present themselves for a practical test at any time up to two years from passing the theory test. But in some cases there have been candidates failing and not returning to training within the two year limit, unable to afford more test attempts. Now with a no theory test A63 they could input more cash into securing the qualification, enhancing their job prospects and furthering their plant operations career.

1.2 Importance of Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane Training

One contributing factor to this heightened risk is underestimation of the skill required to perform the various activities involved in tower crane applications. Consequently, there is now both employer and employee recognition of the need for high-level training in tower crane applications. The CPCS scheme and other industry training initiatives have resulted in an ever-increasing awareness of lifting operations training. High-level training of this sort requires a clear benchmark of competence; it must be realistic and achievable with measurable standards. Such standards are available when a training course is based on a nationally recognized Vocational Qualification (NVQ) and in the case of lifting operations, the NVQ is usually based on the achievement of a Construction Plant Competence Scheme (CPCS) Technical Test. Obtaining a CPCS card can now be seen as compulsory for someone operating a tower crane in any lifting operation where the load is bigger than a 4-man lift and involving public or employee safety.

For certain, you have noted the increasing number of tower cranes. These are almost exclusively the chosen form of structural erection or demolition machine and as such, these cranes are dominant in the tower crane market. As a result, they come in various forms: self-erecting tower cranes, top slewing tower cranes, and other special application cranes (i.e. derrick cranes or climbing frames) which are all forms of tower crane. The majority of these cranes are capable of being driven, and driven tower cranes (excavator/base held) account for a significant amount of the lifting operations in the industry. Due to the increase in tower cranes both as a machine and a form of lifting equipment, the potential for accidents and near misses is on the rise.

1.3 Course Objectives

Upon completion of the Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane (Theory) course, the operator will be able to define and explain the requirements of legislation, safe working practices and procedures, and their responsibilities as a tower crane operator. Summarize the requirements for basic site and equipment safety. Explain the duties required to assess, eliminate and/or control risk from the crane and its activities. Define the procedures and various duties required to prepare the crane for dismantling and transportation between workstations, and explain what needs to be considered when making the decision. Who crane is suitable for various lifting operations? Explain how to plan the lifting activities and assemble the necessary lifting accessories, including the preparation of method statements and risk assessments. What needs to be checked and prepared before climbing the tower or jib. Explain the duties required to monitor both environmental conditions and changes to the crane during its various activities. Finally, this person will be able to carry out a tower crane driver’s specific risk assessment for a lifting operation and plan the necessary control measures to ensure safety.

2. Regulations and Standards

Competence Building on the 2004 version, the Strategic Forum for Construction Plant Safety Group published a new Plant Operators’ Registration Scheme standard in November 2008. This reflects the importance of encouraging competence in plant operation and supporting the government’s target of reducing the level of accidents in the workplace. A card scheme, the Plant Operators Registration Card (also known as the Red Card), is used to provide evidence of training and testing in the form of a skills assessment, as well as a level of health and safety awareness. The card scheme is designed to benefit operators by providing them with proof of their competence as required by legislation and helping employers to fulfill their duty to select competent operators. This meets the requirements of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, which state that workers must have the necessary skills, knowledge, training, and experience to operate plant safely for the work that they are to do. This is directly addressed in the case of lifting operations on construction sites by the newly published Plant Locational Tool and Year Planner. The risk assessment tool considers the design and location of the plant, the construction process, and the ability to segregate and move people out of the lifting operation area. By changing the dates on the year planner, it asks the site when it would be best to use lifting operations according to the safety of its workers. This is particularly important for tower cranes where there could be large numbers of people working on floors which are not affected by the lifting operation.

Regulations for operating a pedestrian operated tower crane mainly refer to the specific legislation for crane operations and the legal requirements for competency to operate this type of plant. It would be safe to assume that all persons operating a crane would be aware of the legal requirements for plant operators which can be found in the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER), and The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER). All these legislations and regulations are designed to make working with machinery and equipment safer for crane operators and those working around cranes and lifting operations. This legislation continues to move towards being more specific in its requirements.

2.1 Health and Safety Regulations

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 build on provisions of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 requiring employers to carry out risk assessments to eliminate or reduce risks posed by work activities. Specific risk assessments for young persons and pregnant workers must also be carried out. Requirements for employers to appoint competent persons to assist in health and safety management are also outlined. This law also has provisions on health and safety arrangements, health and safety procedures, and health and safety training.

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) regulations 2002 is a law which states that employers must control substances that are hazardous to health. They can do this by finding out what the health hazards are, deciding how to prevent harm to health, providing information on the precautions to be taken in using the substance, and providing training and instruction to those who will use the substance. Employers must also provide monitoring and health surveillance to check that the control measures in place are working, and providing a written plan in case of an emergency and informing those who may be affected.

The Health and Safety at Work Act etc. 1974 is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom. It sets out the rights and duties of all employers and employees. The Act is enforced by the Health and Safety Executive and local authorities. Employers must ensure the health, safety, and welfare at work of all their employees with a written health and safety policy, a safe place of work, safe plant and equipment. Employers must also provide a safe system of work, safe handling and use of substances, adequate information, instruction, training, and supervision as well as safe access and egress to and from the workplace. The Act also requires employers to provide and maintain a safe working environment with adequate welfare facilities and an adequate supply of drinking water.

2.2 Industry Standards for Tower Crane Operations

The British Standards Institution (BSI) was the former official standards body in the UK recognizing CP 3019, the first tower crane code of practice manufactured by the Construction Plant-hire Association (CPA). In 2009, BSI ceased endorsing produced standards by trade associations, including the CPA. The CPA has now established a Tower Crane Interest Group (TCIG) from which an Executive committee, Technical committee, and various working groups have been set up to produce and maintain tower crane standards. Two tower crane standards, one ‘hire and maintenance’ and the other ‘safe use’, have been administered by the CPA and have originated from the CE (European Committee for Standardization) awards that the UK has contributed to. EN14439, hire and maintenance of MEP tower cranes, and BS 7121 part 6, safe use of cranes, are general crane standards and are an umbrella to relevant tower crane standards. This includes the use of CP series of codes for specific types of crane and the development adoption of European Standards in the UK. BS7121 part 6 has several sections applicable to mobile, tower, and crawler cranes. A significant amount of work was needed to make this standard suitable for tower crane application when a working group was formed in 2003 to produce an annex to the standard. Both EN14439 and BS 7121 part 6 are written by industry experts, including health and safety professionals, and serve to provide guidance on the safe operation of plant as a whole for both operators and others involved.

2.3 Legal Requirements for Operating a Pedestrian Operated Tower Crane

This requirement is to ensure all personnel that are involved in a lifting operation are competent to do so. This regulation is of particular concern in the construction industry, as there are many instances where personnel who are not trained plant operators operate cranes to “have a go.” This is very dangerous, as they may not understand the movements and limitations of the machinery, as the TIR stated that a third of reported crane incidents involve people who are not the usual operator. This could well involve persons who are not crane operators, such as site supervisors, slingers, banksmen etc. Therefore, the CPCS qualification is useful for the majority of persons involved in lifting operations. The HSC also reported that there are high numbers of migrant workers involved in accidents as they misunderstand instructions given, therefore the requirement for the trained slinger/signaller to have a CSCS skills card may rise in the future. This is to ensure that they understand the instructions being given to them.

3. Crane Components and Controls

Vehicle/Pedestrian Interface: There are many advantages to allowing plant activity within a worksite, however, the CPV has a “duty-of-care” towards his pedestrian workforce and any visitors. It is a fact that vehicles and pedestrians must cross paths at some stage, and in order to maintain the safety of any pedestrian, it is important to minimize the risk involved in these crossings.

Vehicle Maneuvering and Loading: This takes place in a complex and dynamic work environment and should be planned in advance. The main objectives are to avoid/minimize adverse effects on pedestrians, and where possible segregate traffic routes.

Plant Operation: Plant operation is defined as the movement, monitoring and adjustment (including loading) of the vehicle’s controls and movement. The operation of mechanical equipment to off-load plant and/or increase vehicle hire rates is also considered, and plant includes all heavy motorized vehicles.

The main tasks of a trafficker include directing vehicles onto the public highway, parking vehicles, one which includes heavy motor vehicles carrying loads and plant, and leaving such vehicles requiring to cross the pavement. This course will focus on the standard A61 course unless otherwise stated and will look at CPV theory tests from the perspective of a plant operator with a view to on-site operation, safe vehicle maneuvering and loading, and the crossing of the vehicle/pedestrian interface.

3.1 Understanding the Different Parts of a Tower Crane

The primary part of the crane is the mast. It is the vertical part that does not move and on which the slew ring is attached. The slewing unit also contains the motors and slewing brake. The next part is the operating machinery. This consists of the counter jib, the machinery arm, and the slewing unit. This is the part of the crane that does the work and in the case of the slew unit moves around the top of the mast. This can be carried out in a motored unit or by the means of a pull/push rod or chain. There is also a trolley travel which takes place on the machinery arm. This is where the lifting gear is hung. The final part of the crane is the suspended machinery which includes the hook, the hoisting gear, the trolley, and the load. This is the part of the crane directly involved with the load and is in most cases the cause of crane-related incidents. The slew unit or slewing bearing is a crucial part of the crane and needs to be constantly monitored. It is located between the machinery frame and the slewing unit. In some cranes, the weight of the crane is supported on the slew bearing and in this case, there is also an upper and lower bearing. The slew unit requires regular greasing and the slew ring wear needs to be monitored. This is done by regular slewing force tests and a check of the gap between the slewing ring and the machinery frame. Any wear should be immediately reported to the manufacturer.

3.2 Familiarization with Crane Controls and Instruments

PLC controlled electrical tower cranes: In this type of control system, the tower crane is equipped with a PLC (programmable logic controller) to control the movement of the crane. In this system, the remote control sends signals back to the PLC, and these signals can be easily calibrated at the control station to achieve desired movement speeds and accuracy. This control system has more reliability and higher productivity compared to the RC electrical control system mentioned above.

Remote controlled electrical tower cranes: In this type of control system, the motor situated on the electrical panel on the slew ring generates electricity, which goes to the remote control. The operator, with the help of the remote control, sends the signal for motion, rotation, etc. to the control station in the cabin, and the signal is sent back to the slew ring and the motors, achieving the desired action. The control panel is also situated at the end of the jib for some cranes, and some are also equipped with a seat for the operator to control on the jib itself. This kind of control system is not very successful due to the lack of system reliability, and the service requirements for these kinds of control systems are very high.

The most commonly used tower cranes are the ones with a climbing frame, which are operated remotely. A cabin is installed with the crane for the crane operator, which travels up and down the tower, and the cabin is also rotatable. Most of the cranes come with an electrical control system, but hydraulic control systems are also in place.

As we have already discussed, there are several types of tower cranes which are broadly similar in some aspects but very different in others. Hence, the controlling systems also differ in various types of tower cranes.

3.3 Safety Features and Emergency Procedures

All hoisting can present a hazard, so for any lifting operation, a safe system of work must be utilized. This is likely to involve a method statement, risk assessment, and lifting plan. A competent lifting supervisor should be appointed to ensure this is carried out, and this will be good practice for all lifting jobs, whether simple or complex.

Perhaps the most important safety device is the one that prevents danger from happening and saves a person in an emergency situation. These can be safety-critical circuits, devices, or systems to stop the crane from moving or otherwise causing harm. Periodic inspection and thorough maintenance must be conducted so these systems and safety devices are always fully operational.

– Wind speed anemometer and automatic cut out: Wind is a dangerous factor for tower cranes as it can cause instability and overturning of the crane. If the wind speed is excessive, the crane should not be operated. The wind speed anemometer will measure wind speed, and when preset limits are reached, the automatic cut out will render certain crane movement functions in unstable wind conditions inoperative. These anemometers tend to now measure wind speed in 3 axes for a more accurate wind velocity measure. This is an efficient safety device as it reduces the incidence of the operative needing to decide whether it is safe to work in windy conditions.

– Out of service devices: If the crane is under maintenance or out of use, the device will render certain functions inoperative. This is a good safety feature to prevent accidental initiation of a crane movement function while persons are carrying out maintenance within the crane’s working range.

– Radius limiting device: When the jib moves to a preset radius, it can move further if there are no obstacles there. The radius limiting device will prevent this and will stop over jibbing from occurring. This reduces the chance of the load swinging into an obstacle.

– High-level lifting capacity limiter: For this safety device, the crane capacity is pre-set by the lifting machine manufacturer. Once the safe working load limit has been approached and reached, the device will limit further lifting of the load by automatically slowing and stopping the function. During an overload, the device will not allow the load to be moved again until the situation has been rectified, which can be done by reducing the load and resetting the device. At hook height, the device will not allow the hoisting function to take place if the load is above the safe working load limit. This device may also be a visual or audible warning to the operative.

– Emergency stop button: This is a button located on the control station, and if pressed, it will cut the power to the crane movement functions. This is generally self-resetting, meaning the switch must be released before it can be operated again.

Crane manufacturers equip their cranes with various safety devices. These can vary, but the more common ones are:

Due to the testing and development of safety equipment in recent years, the installation of safety devices has become mandatory on tower cranes. These will minimize the risk of accidents and protect the operative, crane, and other persons from injury and damage.

There are various safety devices used on tower cranes, and while these improve the safety for operatives and others in the proximity of the crane, there is no substitute for safe working practices and thorough maintenance of the crane and its safety devices.

4. Pre-Operational Checks and Maintenance

This section will explore each of the three subsections in more detail.

4.3 Importance of Regular Maintenance and Servicing – It is all too easy in today’s fast moving world to use the excuse “I haven’t got the time.” But taking the time to carry out regular maintenance of your machinery will save time in the long run. Preventative maintenance is less costly and time consuming than remedying a major breakdown or carrying out extensive repairs due to neglect. Regular maintenance will also promote good performance and ensure that the machinery is both safe to operate and presents the minimum risk to the operator and other site personnel. All scheduling and records of maintenance and repair work should be recorded in the crane’s logbook/inspection report.

4.2 Identifying and Reporting Faults or Damage – It is important that the operator has been trained to identify faults or damage to the crane machinery. At any time a fault or a defect is noticed, irrespective of how trivial it may seem, it should be reported to a supervisor and the item should be taken out of service until a decision is made as to whether the item is safe to operate and whether or not the repair can be done immediately. All reported defects, and the action taken, should be recorded in the crane’s logbook/inspection report. Regular review of these reports can help identify recurring problems and hasten decision on whether a part should be repaired or replaced.

4.1 Daily Inspection Procedures – Each part of the crane should be visually inspected by the operator to ensure that there is no apparent damage and that it operates correctly. These visual checks should be backed up by functional tests of the part in question. The crane should not be put into service until any defects or faults found are remedied, unless the said defects or faults do not affect the safe operation of the crane. All checks and the action taken should be recorded in the crane’s logbook/inspection report. A sample inspection checklist can be found in the appendix at the end of this module.

Carrying out pre-operational checks is an essential part of any process, but it is particularly important when handling heavy plant machinery. Accidents can be prevented and breakdowns avoided if the machinery is maintained in good working condition.

4.1 Daily Inspection Procedures

An inspection should include all items which can affect the safe working condition of the crane. This includes ensuring that if there are items that require selection or positioning (e.g. spreader, winch rope), they are in a safe working condition, enabling the operator to confidently rely on the equipment for both lift and load stability. Any damaged items should be recorded and tagged out of service before being taken out of use. A repair or replacement can then be carried out prior to returning the item to its function.

Any additional information that could help the operator identify an item, whether it be a specific type of engine oil, filter, or a particular component that might have been overlooked in the past and has since been highlighted as an area for concern, will serve to improve the operator’s ability to undertake an effective inspection. This may also involve supplementing the operator’s manual with maintenance instructions from the equipment manufacturer.

The importance carried with the daily inspection of a tower crane should never be undervalued. It is equally as significant as the inspection carried out before the employment of the machinery and even during its operation. This is because if the plant is not maintained and remains in a safe operation condition, the pre-use and operational checks are merely snapshots of time within that machine’s life. If a plant item is not inspected and maintained throughout its working life, it is likely that the equipment will deteriorate to a state where it becomes hazardous. If the deterioration is allowed to continue, the safety of the person operating the equipment or those in and around the working vicinity will be at great risk.

4.2 Identifying and Reporting Faults or Damage

Informal notifications to site agents or supervisors may be adequate for minor items; however, many company safety management systems will require a more formal process. If the fault or damage has an immediate effect on the safe operation of the tower crane, the operator should ensure that the equipment is taken out of service and is tagged or labeled as being “not for use”. This will prevent anyone attempting to operate or work on the tower crane, and it is an important safety measure if the fault has occurred while working for a contractor in charge of the crane.

If faults or damage are found upon inspection, the operator must ensure no one can operate the crane until the fault has been rectified. This may involve driving in the slew and derrick brake, operating a lockable isolator or removing a control lever. This type of action is an effective means of preventing the wrong people from attempting to carry out makeshift repairs. Under no circumstances should the tower crane be operated until it has been established that the fault has been rectified. Operating a faulty tower crane can often lead to further damage and more complicated and costly repairs. After identifying a fault or damage, it is likely that the operator will be required to use or make a variety of reports.

4.3 Importance of Regular Maintenance and Servicing

High interest or lack of availability of apprentices can demoralize operators who wish to teach the new generation of the trade. This can have a big effect on safety and competence as a whole in the construction industry.

Regular, planned maintenance can help keep the equipment in good condition mechanically and aesthetically, which can affect the operator financially through the CITB levy rate. This levy rate is based on a number of factors, one of which is the company’s or operator’s credit history, and affects the amount of interest or extra paid back on any type of funding or finance. A company which holds a good credit history, or an operator who wishes to maintain a good credit history, could lose out by paying more in interest. This is because the rate is an indicator of the credit history with a higher risk company paying a higher rate. The levy rate affects the price of any grants or funding, with higher risk companies losing out as the funds will be more expensive or unavailable. This can be shown in the form of a credit check at the hiring of apprentices.

It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of regular, planned maintenance in maximizing the safe working life of any plant equipment. During the course of A63 Crane training, candidates will be taught that regular maintenance reduces the risk of equipment failure, which in turn reduces the likelihood of unscheduled downtime. Unscheduled downtime can prove costly, adds extra pressure on other equipment that may have to pick up the extra workload, and can cause a loss of production. This can mean that there is no work for the operator who may be a subcontractor. If they are unable to work through no fault of their own, this can cause them financial hardship.

5. Safe Operating Procedures

Setting up the crane on a construction site involves various dangers that should be addressed in order to ensure a safe working environment. Factors such as ground conditions, obstructions, environmental conditions, and positioning the crane with regards to the lifting area should all be considered. The ground should be firm, level and capable of supporting the imposed load of the crane and the load to be lifted. If there is any doubt as to the condition of the ground, a competent person should be consulted, and a trial lift should be carried out. Ground conditions can be supported by either concrete or timber sole plates. Obstructions within the working area, such as other contractors, stockpiles and building materials, will reduce mobility and may lead to over-reaching and dangerous lifting practices, while the people or equipment working around them may be at risk from the crane and its load. The crane should be positioned to minimise the risk of collision and to allow a safe and clear access route to the lifting area. A crane with a slewing radius limiting device makes this easier to control, and should the crane need to slew from its original position, instability and ground conditions should be reassessed. Finally, environmental conditions (wind, rain, etc.) can affect the stability of the crane, the performance of the appointed person and the attitude of the driver. All of the above should be addressed in a method statement for the lifting operations, and a lift plan should be drawn up to identify the hazards, the likelihood of them occurring, and the control measures that will be put in place. Both should be consulted by all those involved with the lift.

5.1 Setting Up the Crane on a Construction Site

The first and most important step when setting up a tower crane is to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations outlined in the instruction manual. In addition to this, the specific conditions of each site must be considered. There are general procedures which are relevant to the setup of all tower cranes. Following these, the crane should be fully erected and tested to ensure its safety prior to its first lifting operation. Before any crane is to be assembled and/or erected, a lift plan/method statement must be formulated. The person/s undertaking the planning and execution of the lifting operation should be competent and adequately trained so as to do so in a safe manner. This will usually require the cooperation of the Principal Contractor and any other site operatives who may be affected by the lifting operation. The area in which the crane is to be set up should be as level as possible and of sufficient strength and compaction to support the crane and any loads it will handle. Foundation strength is assured through testing the ground compaction, which may be done by a test dig or by the use of a dynamic or form/pcone penetrometer test. Here the foundation load charts outlined in the lifting operations and lifting equipment regulations may be referred to. In some cases it may be necessary to prepare the ground foundations by concreting a large enough area to spread the load sufficiently. This is typical when the crane is to be erected on a car park or when a bolted base cannot be used or would be impractical.

5.2 Lifting and Moving Loads Safely

5. If the load is being moved to a location which is unknown to the driver i.e. out of his line of vision, then a slinger/banksman should be employed to guide the driver using clear and recognized hand signals. This will reduce the risk of collisions and ensures the safest and most efficient movement of loads to their location. Loads should be moved slowly and steadily.

4. The movement of loads on steep slopes can lead to overloading of one set of outriggers and machine instability. This can lead to sliding or tip over of the machine.

3. Where there are ground bearing pressures close to the maximum, the movement of loads near to trenches or excavations can lead to collapse with the risk of persons being trapped.

2. Loads must be slung correctly and should be given a trial lift to check the weight and that they are secure. Loads should not be moved over people working in the vicinity of the crane.

1. Before lifting a load, the operator must ensure the area is clear of personnel, that no one is working in the vicinity of the load, and that the load does not swing into anyone or anything.

When lifting and moving loads, the crane operator must always ensure conditions are safe to do so and the following points are taken into account:

5.3 Communication and Signaling Techniques

5.3.1 Communication During the planning and organization phase of the lift, the slinger/signaller will consult with the crane operator and/or appointed person to determine the suitability of the proposed lift and the selection of lifting accessories and whether modifications to the load or lifting points may be necessary to safely execute the lift. During the process of load attachment, the slinger will use clear and precise information to ensure that the correct attachment method is used. For example, attaching a strop to a hook, the slinger will indicate the middle of the strop and direct the crane operator to vertically position the hook into the middle of the strop and engage the connection of both legs of the strop. When the crane operator has difficulty seeing the load or there is a need to direct the operator during a tight lift, the slinger will use short and clear instructions to direct the movement of the crane in order to aid the safe movement and positioning of the load. At times, there may be a need for the crane operator to relinquish control of the load to the slinger so as to allow the operator to reposition the crane. The slinger will take control of the load by using correct and alternative signaling methods until the load has been passed back to the crane operator.

Standard signals are determined, and it is the duty of the operator to ensure that all signals given are in accordance with the standard signals. When a new signal is given, the operator should not move the load until he is sure of the correct signal, and if in doubt, he should lower the load. Where general signaling is not possible or safe (due to poor visibility, etc.), a system using voice is acceptable provided that the person giving the instructions has a good view of the load and can direct the operator safely.

5.4 Working in Adverse Weather Conditions

– Electrical storms: When lightning or a thunderstorm is expected, the crane must be left in a safe condition, and the operator should take cover in a place of safety. Disconnect the electrical power supply and all control panels. If there is a risk of a lightning strike on the crane or to/from any location where the load is being lifted, the operation must be postponed.

– Rain: During periods of rain or snow, it may be necessary to postpone the lifting operation. Precipitation can cause the crane to become unstable due to the increased load on the ground and subgrade affected by the reduced friction. Devices such as automatic braking systems for slewing and trolley drives, and overhoist limiters, can prevent load slippage caused by wetting of ropes. Tonnes should be added to the ballast counterweight to offset any loss of jib capacity due to later installation of dry heating facilities.

– Wind: The effect of wind on the crane increases significantly with the height of the jib. At 34 mph, a tower crane will be subjected to a force of approximately 1 tonne on the jib, and this will increase fourfold if the wind speed doubles. Observe the general weather conditions that could affect traffic on a public highway, street, or railway and take into account warnings from the Meteorological Office. Devices should be installed to enable jib and trolley travel speeds to be halved. Operations should be aborted if wind speeds increase compared to what has been forecast.

Also, adverse weather conditions are likely to prevent the crane from being used safely. Anemometers or wind gauges should be used to assess wind speed. If the reading is 28 mph or more, the crane jib should be laid flat and the crane allowed to weathervane. When it is necessary to work in adverse weather conditions, the operator must be particularly vigilant and take account of the following:

6. Load Charts and Calculations

Legal requirements that a crane operator must follow include the information on the crane and load weight being documented as proof if the task is tried accident or incident, the requested weight being within the range of the crane’s capabilities, and if it is a lift on a construction site, the PC (principal contractor) will need assurance that the lift has been planned and organized safely. If the lift is not compliant with any of these requirements, it can be refused or aborted. If the lift is a critical lift, the PC may request a lift plan or method statement from the operator. This is a document the operator would produce to provide a scope of what will be lifted, how it will be lifted, and what equipment and personnel will be used. Usually, a diagram would be included and the safety factors would be explained.

Software programs for calculating load capacities for cranes are fairly new to the industry and are generally too expensive and in high demand for a typical crane hire company. However, the use of these calculations is becoming more frequent with higher health and safety requirements. The developed program and results are especially useful to a user with little experience in calculations of a force exerted. The CPCS theory discloses that where the data can be obtained, it is the calculation of the load and establishing the ability for the crane to lift it safely ranges to be the most effective method.

Understanding load capacities and limitations covers insight into manufacturer’s load charts, software programs, and what the operator is legally required to adhere to. A manufacturer’s load chart is a graphical illustration of a crane’s capabilities in lifting loads over an indicated range of areas and radii. Understanding the load chart is a necessity for a crane operator. If a lift is tried with a lack of information or misinterpretation of data on the capacity, it could result in an overload of the crane. If this happens, the crane has been tried past its point of failure, where the structure of the crane becomes stressed and damage occurs. This is going to be a danger to personnel in the working area and render the crane out of service until inspection and possible repair.

Load charts and calculations explore understanding of established load capacities and limitations, calculating load weight and center of gravity, and knowledge in using load charts for safe crane operation.

6.1 Understanding Load Capacities and Limitations

At this point, it is necessary to point out that small capacity mobile cranes have a manufacturer’s rated capacity that is designated at a certain radius with certain boom angles. Then, using only charts or graphs, the capacity rating can be determined for the given lift. It is extremely important to know and understand where the capacity chart is stored and how to use it in regards to the specific lift to be performed. In the case of larger construction cranes, such as wheel-mounted rough terrains, crawlers, and locomotive cranes, the operator and lift director’s guide is not limited to capacity charts. It is much more the operator and signalman who must have the knowledge required to determine whether a lift can be safely performed. This will be dealt with in the ensuing sections of load calculation.

When you have the basics of crane operation and types of cranes, it is very important to properly understand load capacity and limitations of the crane to be used. As it’s known, lifting excessively heavy loads can cause equipment instability and tip-overs. Excessively underrated loads can lead to excessive wear and sudden failure of the lifting device itself, as well as potentially damaging the load to be lifted. A crane should only be operated when its functional capabilities and safety features are in an unimpaired condition and with all warning and capacity devices in place (Ref. OSHA 1926.550 (a) (6) (i)).

6.2 Calculating Load Weights and Center of Gravity

For simple symmetrical loads of uniform density the centre of gravity is at the geometrical centre. In cases where the load is of irregular shape it may be necessary to find the centre of gravity accurately. This can be done by using equations or it may be found by constructing a simple jig on which the load will balance. The jig itself can be a simple shape, (triangle, rectangle etc.) provided the jig’s centre of gravity is known and is constructed of material similar to the load. Once the jig has been set up correctly the light load is slung from a single point and adjustments can be made to find the correct position. Step by step with the original position.

The centre of gravity is that point at which a body acts as if all the weight is concentrated in that one point. In other words if the load is suspended from a single point (as a plumb-bob) the point at which the load hangs is the centre of gravity, though in the case of a body of irregular shape, density or with cavities this point may not be inside the body.

Loads hoisted from their basic lifting position are likely to tilt or swing and this is particularly so with flexible type loads for example, a bag of sand with loops or a load in a net or sling. If the load does tilt or swing this will cause an unpredictable change to the centre of gravity and this can be dangerous. Any lifting operation where the load is not lifted directly upwards, or is being swung from its original position, should be discouraged because of the possible effects due to loss of stability.

This section focuses on how to calculate the weight of loads and the information needed to determine the weight of a load. It also explains how to find the center of gravity for a load. Because gravitational force causes an object to have weight, a load has a weight (mass x gravity). Knowing the weight of a load is an essential factor when it comes to deciding whether a particular lifting device, be it a hoist, crane or other lifting gear is suitable or whether the load is too heavy for the equipment being used and must be split into lighter loads.

6.3 Using Load Charts for Safe Crane Operations

Having conducted the necessary calculations, i.e. working out the weight of the load and knowing where the centre of gravity is, the operator can now turn his attention to the crane itself. The manufacturer’s load chart is an essential tool to enable the operatives to identify any specific limitations for the crane, a particular configuration of the crane, or lifting accessories that are to be utilized. For instance, some cranes have two or more hook blocks, but only one may be suitable for the task in hand due to limitations on line pull or the load capacity. Load chart data is also required in order to plan the lift; it may be necessary for the Appointed Person to scrutinize this in order to propose a change to the lift plan should the crane type specified not be suitable. The Appointed Person would be wise to consider the information contained on the load chart right from the initial site planning stage as it is likely to influence many aspects of the craneage i.e. crane selection, position of the crane relative to the load, and ground conditions.

7. Rigging and Slinging Techniques

Another type of wire rope is a large rotation resistant rope, which is either an 18×7 or a 19×7 type. These ropes have good bending fatigue characteristics, usually around 15-25 sheaves, and some have swiveling resistance. They can resist abrasion and crushing and have a long service life. A 35×7 and 35×19 class of rope has 12 or 30 outer strands and has excellent fatigue resistance and drum crushing resistance in single layer winding on winches.

The most common type of wire rope sling contains six strands of 19 wires. This is generally referred to as a 6×19 wire rope. The 6×19 has good flexibility and fatigue resistance. Although these characteristics are great for its main use around sheaves and drums, this type of wire rope has less abrasion resistance and a shorter sling life. An improvement of the 6×19 is the 6×26, which has five more wires per strand. This type of rope has great abrasion resistance but less flexibility and reduced drum crushing resistance. A 6×36 is a further improvement with three separate levels consisting of a 6×19, a 6×25, and 6×26. A 6×36 has good flexibility and abrasion resistance and is the best choice when a long service life and resistance to abusive wear are needed.

Wire rope slings are most commonly used on construction sites and in small fabrication shops as they are able to lift hot and abrasive loads. They are also very durable and can last a long time if they are not abused. On the other hand, they are heavier and more difficult to handle than other types of slings. For this reason, wire rope slings are not the best choice if you will be rigging and de-rigging frequently.

The first part of selecting a sling is to match it to the type of hitch that would be used. Different types of slings are more appropriate for specific hitches in that the sling is most effective and efficient when used properly. The most common type of sling is the vertical or choker hitch using a sling with an eye on each end. In basket hitches, a continuous eye sling or a sling with a reversed eye in it may be used. Another point to consider is the material the sling is composed of will have an impact on the sling life and also what it can be used for.

7.1 Different Types of Slings and Their Uses

Wire rope slings are a very durable and abrasion-resistant type of sling. They are used for overhead lifting and hoisting and are often used for heavy-duty rigging because they can lift hot, sharp, or heavy loads. Wire rope slings are constructed from laid wire rope and are classified as a single wire rope sling, which has only one load-bearing wire, and a multiple part sling, which has more than one load-bearing wire running parallel. Wire rope slings have an advantage over other types of slings in that any damage to the outer wire will not affect the strength of the sling. Wire rope slings are used in many general, heavy-duty, and lift and lay applications and have saved workers from injury and equipment from damage many times over.

Polyester slings are very similar to nylon slings but are not as flexible. They are also not as stretchy, having only about 3% stretch at the rated capacity. Polyester slings are great for heavy-duty lifting and rigging. This type of sling is excellent for continuous use in a choker hitch because the sling is smooth and pliable, allowing it to conform to the shape of the load. Polyester slings are used for lifting coils, pipe, steel plate, and any other items with rough edges.

Nylon slings are the most widely used slings today. They are very strong and flexible, and will not mar, scratch, or dent the loads they are lifting. They are particularly good for lifting fragile loads and are used in many general rigging applications. They stretch at an average of 8-10% at rated capacity, allowing them to absorb shock, which makes them ideal for lifting and handling machines.

7.2 Proper Techniques for Attaching and Securing Loads

During lifting operations, it is necessary to frequently check the slings, ropes, and chains for any damage. If any deformed or damaged rigging gear is found, it must be removed from service and scrapped. The damaged gear should be cut into pieces and discarded to prevent someone from using it again. Any rigging gear which appears unsafe should be tagged and removed from service until it can be repaired. OSHA has very strict requirements regarding removal from service of damaged gear and periodic inspection of all rigging gear in a materials handling industry.

The ropes or slings on a tower crane are too often attached to the load, then the crane hook is engaged to lift the load. This is an incorrect method to lift a load. The proper sequence is to attach the slings to the load and then attach the slings or ropes to the crane hook. There should be no excess rope or sling coiled on the load. Finally, if a load will be lifted and then moved to a different location by dragging it while still suspended, the load should be lifted a small distance off the ground to allow the slings to be removed and reattached in a position which will allow the load to be in a level and balanced position.

When rigging materials, be certain that the ropes, chains, or slings are of sufficient strength to sustain the installed load. Never use slings which are kinked, knotted, or twisted and ensure that the full sling width is flat against the load. When slinging a load with multiple parts, ensure that it is symmetrically balanced. Mechanical clamps and grabs should be attached as per the manufacturer’s recommendations. The spacing between the two clamps or grabs should also be as per the manufacturer’s recommendations. If these recommendations are not available, the general rule of thumb is to space the clamps or grabs at a distance equal to 2/3 the length of the load. This will prevent overloading the load and off-balance lifting. Lifting beams or spreader beams should be attached to the crane hook with a shackle in such a way that it allows the beam to pivot. The slings are then attached to the beam and the load, ensuring the load is symmetrically balanced.

A load which is not properly attached to the lifting device can fall and may cause an accident. Also, the load should be attached in such a way that the balance is not adversely affected. Attaching and securing a load depends upon the shape of the load, the manner in which the load is supported, and the materials handling equipment being used. The following are the general requirements.

7.3 Inspecting and Maintaining Rigging Equipment

Step forward INSPECTA.FS to reduce human error and increase confidence when inspecting and maintaining rigging equipment.

All the different types of slings, wire and steel, withstand a lot of wear and tear and fatigue during lifting operations. It is crucial that these are checked on a regular basis and replaced if any damaged equipment is found.

Steel slings, again, are used for the same purpose as wire rope but are significantly stronger. So we tend to use these for the heavy lifting operations. Steel slings come in many different shapes and sizes. For instance, choker chain, basket sling, horseshoe chains, plate clamps, and special paddle clamps.

Wire rope comes in various forms, as the actual wire rope is used for lifting. This can be used in a single leg formation and a multi-leg formation to ease the lifting of loads that are perhaps unbalanced or have several lifting points.

Different types of slings and their uses are covered in A62. We will, as with previous equipment training, go through the right and wrong way of using those. But our focus here is on steel and wire rope slings, which are almost exclusively used in the lifting operations of tower cranes.

8. Site Hazards and Risk Assessment

The assessment of risk is an in-depth look at the concerning hazards and their associated risk. The aim of the risk assessment is to rank the severity of the risk and determine where efforts should be focused. A risk assessment should be done systematically and recorded for future reference. It should be seen as a quality preventative tool rather than just paperwork to get the job started. The control measures identified through the assessment process will have a dramatic effect on reducing the level of risk associated with the hazards. Control measures have to be practical and involve detailed steps that need to be taken to effectively reduce the risk.

Potential hazards on site do not only affect the safety of crane operations, they can threaten the safety of everyone on site. Identification of potential hazards or unsafe working conditions is the first step in assessing the risk. The process of hazard identification involves finding and recording potential hazards that may be present in the workplace. High-risk and complex hazards have to be assessed by someone who has the necessary knowledge and skills. These assessments need to be monitored and reviewed regularly or when the job changes. All workers on site should be provided with information on the hazards and the risk associated with the workplace that they are working in. They should also receive information on ways to eliminate the hazards and protect their safety while on site. A good way of identifying hazards is to establish a health and safety committee and get the workers involved by holding regular health and safety meetings.

8.1 Identifying Potential Hazards on a Construction Site

The process of identifying hazards will require consideration of site layout and plans for future development, and it may be necessary to prepare and maintain a site plan to assist in this. The preparation of job safety sheets may also be very useful in identifying hazards associated with specific activities. It may also be useful to carry out a study of possible dangers associated with specific site activities by using a hazard checklist. This will identify hazards in terms of how and why accidents occur and whether existing precautions are adequate. A hazard review of this type may also need to capture intermittent hazards that can result from simultaneous activities or plant movements.

Potential hazards on a construction site are virtually limitless at times, with risks present from the project start to completion. However, CPs will have front line responsibility for site safety and must ensure that hazards are identified and risks minimized. A hazard can be defined as anything with the potential to cause harm and can be found in the form of people, plant, equipment, materials, substances, adverse working conditions, or lack of safe procedures. Hazards can have significant potential to cause harm, for example, a hazard present during a lifting operation that could result in dropping the load in the vicinity of another employee can have significant potential to cause harm.

8.2 Conducting Risk Assessments for Crane Operations

Once all the potential hazards have been identified, these must be evaluated to determine the level of risk that they pose. This involves considering the likelihood of the hazard causing harm and how severe that harm may be. A simple method is to score the likelihoods and severities from 1 to 3 and then multiply the 2 scores to obtain a risk score, with 1 to 3 being low risk, 4 to 6 medium risk, and 9 high risk. This will enable the more serious or likely risks to be identified and the measures to prevent these to be given more attention.

The first step is to utilise the information gathered in identifying site hazards and the location and details of the lift to identify all the potential hazards associated with the lift. This will involve consulting all personnel involved with the lift, including the crane operator, supervisors, maintenance personnel, etc., who may be able to highlight important details that may not have been considered. A walk around the site is often useful, starting at the location of the lift and considering conditions such as weather, lighting, or the presence of any obstructions or hindrances to the operation, and then moving to where the crane will be sited and finally considering the travel route of the load and where it will be landed. The hazards and risks identified should then be recorded, perhaps on a planning sheet with the details of the lift.

Conducting risk assessments for crane operations is an important element of planning and organising the lift. The object is to carry out a systematic appraisal to identify the full range of hazards, evaluate the risks, and put in place measures to eliminate or control the risk. This is a legal requirement as well as being necessary to provide a safe workplace for those involved in the lifting operation.

8.3 Implementing Control Measures and Safety Procedures

The control measures should then be documented, and it is often useful to use a risk register to effectively communicate the risk factor of each and every task to the workforce. This risk register should be displayed in the work environment or welfare facilities. Re-evaluations of risk assessments and control measures should be established when there are changes to any process, plant, or procedure as it may affect the safety of the task and introduce new hazards. Control measures and procedures need to be audited and reviewed by a competent person to ensure their effectiveness.

This involves looking at the tasks and breaking them down into a sequence of key stages. Then, by using the hierarchy of risk control measures, we should substitute high-risk methods of operation with ones that produce a lower level of risk. The measures of controls are as follows: elimination (including avoidance), substitution, engineering controls, isolation, administrative controls, personal protective equipment.

9. Emergency Response and First Aid

In this section of the training program, we will focus on the most common and most severe accidents that occur while operating a crane and the appropriate emergency response. We will then outline the correct methods for providing first aid to an injured person and finally, discuss the importance of first aid training and make it compulsory for crane operators to learn basic CPR and how to use an Automated External Defibrillator. First aid in the workplace is very important, nowhere more so than on a construction site. Construction sites have the highest number of workplace accidents and often more than one contractor is on site. It is a legal requirement that each contractor has a first aid kit and an appointed first aider. If there isn’t a qualified first aider amongst the contractors, there should be at least one person per five to fifty people who holds an emergency first aid certificate. The first aid at construction sites and best practice has an alliance with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and an approval body. It gives advice on previous injuries in particular to falls from height and lifting operations and how to better prevent injury. In addition to this, the National Federation has put together a 13-page document highlighting the legal requirements of first aid at construction sites. This is all important information to the crane operator and sets the tone for how serious an accident at work can be and how important it is to be prepared for it.

9.1 Emergency Procedures for Crane Accidents

In the event of an accident occurring away from the crane but within the work site, the operator should stop all the crane functions immediately, without causing further movement of the load or the crane itself. The operator will then alert all site personnel and restrict access to the area. This should be achieved without causing any confusion or panic among site personnel. An example of addressing more serious accidents with the use of a dummy scenario could be provided for discussion with groups. This will help students in planning their own site emergency procedures. Other work site personnel should be trained to take directions from crane operators in the event of an accident involving the crane. This will help prevent any erroneous actions that may exacerbate the situation.

You’ll learn the procedures for responding to various types of crane accidents and the necessary elements of an emergency plan. The material in this section will help you safeguard the site and protect the public. It will also help you prevent an accident from escalating into a more serious event. You will also learn the importance of not approaching the scene of an accident and potentially becoming a second victim. Although the instinct of any operator is to go to the aid of a workmate, it is important to keep yourself safe as you will be of no help to that person if you become injured trying to help them.

9.2 First Aid Techniques for Common Injuries

Treatment of injuries To treat any injury, the RICE principle should be followed. “R” is rest, often a difficult one when there is a job to complete, but an injury will only get worse without rest. “I” is ice. Ice should be applied to any acute injury, making sure it is not applied directly to the skin and not left on for longer than 15-minute periods. “C” is compression. This is to reduce swelling and should be applied using a firmly bandage. Care should be taken to ensure the bandage is not too tight. “E” is elevation, so that the injured body part is raised above the level of the heart. This is also to reduce swelling. Lifting hands or feet to above head level is sometimes necessary to achieve this, and severe cases of swelling may require a splint to regain functionality.

Types of injuries Most injuries involving CPN cranes occur as strains and sprains from improper lifting and carrying. Most of these injuries occur in the back, and the use of back belts is essential to prevent acute injuries. Wrist and elbow RSI injuries are common when operating cranes, and serratus anterior and supraspinatus strains can also occur when trying to work through difficult lifts and hoists. These strains are usually treated by strapping, and supraspinatus injuries can be treated with injections. Injuries to hands and feet can occur remotely; however, the most common way to occur is by dropping objects. Consequently, puncture wounds to the feet from nails and screws are common, with bruising and breaks in the toes also occurring. Lacerations and embedment of foreign objects are common in hand injuries, and any deep laceration or suspected break should be x-rayed to rule out any foreign body within the wound.

9.3 CPR and AED Training for Crane Operators

An Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) is a medical device used to analyze the rhythm of the heart in a victim of cardiac arrest and if necessary, deliver an electrical shock known as defibrillation which is vital to restarting the heart. AEDs are becoming widely available in places of work, public buildings and any site with the potential for accidents or injuries. An AED is safe and very easy to use with a little training. Emergency resuscitation of a casualty using a defibrillator is effective when there is a minimal time interval between the onset of arrest and delivery of the first shock. This makes AED training vital for crane operators in the event of a medical emergency occurring on site involving themselves or any other site personnel. Workers: “Competent personnel should be on hand to act quickly in an emergency and when work activities are of a hazardous nature, this might mean that people with first-aid, and perhaps medical, training should be readily available.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a technique involving chest compressions and sometimes rescue breaths to help someone who is in cardiac arrest. If a person is in cardiac arrest, it is crucial to get their blood flow working again, and CPR does this by imitating the heartbeat in order to get blood carrying oxygen around the body and to the vital organs. If done effectively, bystander CPR can be lifesaving but it has to be done correctly by following the protocols. Formal training in CPR is provided by many different types of organizations and it can also be learned by the lay person. Personnel involved in lifting operations should have a good understanding of CPR and AED, considering the age group and medical history of the individuals they are working with.

10. Written and Practical Assessments

10.2 Practical Assessments of Crane Operations. The candidate should be assessed operating the specific type of crane for which the CPCS test is being taken. Each test should be specific to the type of work that will be carried out using the crane and consideration should be given as to whether it is necessary to conduct assessments on different attachments and accessories. During the assessment, the candidate will be asked to carry out a number of specific tasks related to the operation and position of the crane. These will vary depending on the category of crane but are all aimed at testing the skill and proficiency of the candidate for each particular type of crane.

Written examinations should be prepared for by addressing each of the topics set out in the examination syllabus. Adequate training and acquisition of knowledge should be gained from both practical experience and the study of manufacturers’ manuals and relevant British and European standards. This will enable the candidate to understand the underpinning knowledge behind the operation of the crane and, where necessary, the candidates’ employers and training providers should be encouraged to seek clarification from CITB on the reason and principles behind each of the questions and answers to ensure better understanding of requirements for operating the crane.

10.1 Preparing for Written Examinations

In most cases, one week’s notice may be required when booking theory tests. The time frame for a candidate who books a theory test first and is followed by the practical test(s) is normally sufficient. However, when theory tests are taken that relate to a red card or other plant categories, it is likely that candidates will have to wait up to 6 weeks before a theory test can be taken. Candidates should weigh this into consideration and may even consider taking practical tests prior to theory tests if theory preparation is still underway. Assessment integration is an option for on-site experienced operators with little theory knowledge. This is common as card upgrades are progressively becoming a mandatory requirement.

CPCS tests are prepared to the highest quality and specifically structured to ensure candidates have less room for error when undertaking the theory test. The theory test pass mark is 80%. It is accepted that candidates will need to prepare for the theory tests, and extra time is allowed for the above-average amount of theory questions normally associated with A61 courses.

10.2 Practical Assessments of Crane Operations

Candidates with no crane operating experience will be required to complete familiarization exercises on the controls and basic operating tasks. On completion of the familiarization exercises, the assessor will provide feedback to the candidate. This feedback will include a written summary and, if required, an informal interview. The purpose of the feedback will be to assist the candidate in their consideration to undertake formal training and to highlight areas for practice and development before formal instruction.

Simulator Assessment: Simulator assessment is aimed at individuals who are in the early stages of their mobile crane operating career. The objective of a simulator assessment is to provide the candidate with feedback on their abilities and areas for development, with the overall aim of assisting the candidates to become competent operators. The feedback can include suggestions to do further practice before undertaking training or to make sure they complete the tasks within the recommended time in order to gain the maximum benefit from crane-specific training.

Study the manufacturer’s instruction and ensure that you understand the safety, warning devices, and instructions provided by the manufacturer. Contact the P.O.T. Crane committee for further guidance. Pay careful attention to the steps and control operation from activating the power to hoisting and traveling to shutting down. Study and understand the load chart; be familiar with the jib radius, the height under hook, and the weight of the load. Learn to perform a pre-use inspection and take 10 minutes to carry one out at home before visiting a test center.

10.3 Reviewing Assessment Results and Feedback

Written examinations can be reviewed with the use of your question paper and answer sheet. Look at each question and compare this to your answer. If it is correct, great, move on. If not, write a brief sentence on why you chose this answer and what the correct answer is. This will give a clear indication of your knowledge of the question topic. Where it is related to specific regulations, tasks, or a sequence of building a structure, etc., write it down. This information goes a long way in memory. Any correct information you have written down, no matter how far from the question or answer, should be highlighted as something that you know but was possibly misunderstood at the time of assessment. Incorrect or irrelevant information should be crossed out or erased. With this method, you are essentially building a second model of the examination, pinpointing what you do and don’t know in greater detail. Comparing this to the model examination will determine your pass or fail on the entire paper.

Reviewing the written and practical assessments is an important part of your learning. This can take place with your assessor in a formal sit-down meeting, or by reviewing your work at home. Either way, it will help you gain a better understanding of your strengths and weaknesses, and clarify any points you may have missed during the assessments. For this reason, it is important to secure some feedback, which can be used to aid self-development and improvement.