Guides and Resources for Training in Specific Trades within Construction in the UK

1. Introduction

Guides and materials that are freely available to support any specific trade training have been brought together in this publication and contain information on careers and training within construction trades in one place. Every day, thousands of people are choosing to learn the construction skills they will need to embark on a rewarding, enjoyable, lifelong career, and the publications provide guidance on a range of trades including carpenters, bricklayers, painters and decorators, other site operative occupations, and site support trades. This publication is aimed primarily at the pre-employment audience and is intended to improve access to information on the many and varied job roles within the construction industry in one.

There are many job roles within the construction sector, and workers move between construction occupations or trade specialisms throughout their career. There are many trades within the sector, and workers tend to train in these trades for which they show a specific talent or aptitude. To increase productivity within a construction project, workers or businesses are looking towards apprentices, and there’s a demand for the role of skilled tradespeople to be recognized as evidenced by the British Government’s successful push for tradespeople to be looked at as trades professionals rather than low-skilled workers. The successful pursuit of any learning and work within a construction trade involves individual workers getting the right training blend to develop the technical and practical skills required for that trade, as well as continuity of employment, which is often best achieved via Apprenticeship frameworks.

2. Carpentry

The approach to describing how to carry out basic carpentry tasks such as first fixing, second fixing, and roofing work aims to offer practical help at each stage of these operations. The design and production of carpentry and joinery for construction projects demands the intelligent creation, selection, and application of appropriate details and assemblies. This entails the creation of designs that conform to architectural and engineering requirements and which deliver good in-service performance, with particular regard to durability and environmental sustainability issues. Accurate production information is essential, and this depends on a good understanding of the principles and practices of traditional carpentry and joinery.

Carpentry covers a wide range of materials and techniques. There are a number of categories in which I have tried to group books, but as the saying goes, nothing is simple and artificial groupings abound. I have not included any of the lightweight finishes of proprietary claddings, panelling, or floors, hoping instead to cover them in another section on ‘Finishing Carpentry’. Also omitted until later are books on Specific Joints. Many books cover more than one aspect, but I have tried to err on the side of the main contents. Not included are books on basic woodwork other than Roubo’s substantial work, for their more general application there is another page on Cabinet Making & Furniture.

2.1. Basic Carpentry Techniques

2.1. Basic Carpentry Techniques. It is very important for you to embark on this project understanding carpentry language. In this book, I will be using simple words for the simple assignment, but please be careful for difficult jargon that you must accept if you are to complete a job, so learn! You can take other sections of this website in ‘TECHNIQUES’ to get correct carpentry words and what equipment might be used. Also, click on ‘INTRO’ and ‘SEQUENCE’ in order to understand how you need to begin the larger projects. However, here we have a talk about the basic techniques and several tips to help you get your first basic usable project.

An introduction to basic carpentry techniques provides a good place to begin your instruction. Carpenters build, repair, and install building frameworks and structures made from wood and other materials. They also build various types of cabinets, shelving, and other furniture for residential, commercial or industrial applications. Carpentry includes working from blueprints, drawings or instructions to construct wooden prototypes or models. Here we will explore some of the basics of becoming a carpenter, including what the most common career pathways are and what skills are essential for the job.

2.2. Advanced Carpentry Skills

Skills 121, in Shropshire, is also offering women a programme with a one-day taste and taster, with introductory brickwork and a bricklaying taster, to find out about the trade, some practical construction input, and basic numeracy, before progressing to the interview stage for the 16-week preparation pre-employment course. There are no costs for the training or Personal Protective Equipment. The qualification involves training to achieve the NVQ2 and the Certificate in Bricklaying, together with a Health and Safety qualification. Candidates may have an employer before they join the training, but some capital allowance is made for those who find their own position during the programme. Extra support (e.g., dyslexia support) is available, but the cost may have to be paid privately. The programme includes a site visit and paid work trial placements. Jobs, after completion, may also come from firms on the large number of commercial site placements. Full funding is available for those who can prove that they have not achieved a bricklaying qualification previously. Bourneville College has a variety of other programmes which offer new starts at Level 3 in bricklaying and also have provision at level 2-3 in other trades.

Splash at the Leeds College of Building offers a 15-week training course in advanced carpentry for women. It includes advanced joinery and bench joinery, as well as some workshop and site placement experience up to second fix level. More extensive work placement would have to be covered individually. This provision is intended for women seeking career development and/or a change of direction. There is minimal eligibility, 16 years minimum and female. Interested participants can apply online.

2.3. Carpentry Tools and Equipment

2.3.1. Claw Hammer. A hammer is used for driving nails into timber work, for hitting chisels and screwdrivers, and for general use. There are different types, styles, and makes of hammers, but the type commonly used by carpenters is the ‘claw hammer’ (or ‘carpenters hammer’) which is shown in figure 2.11. A claw hammer is identified by the ‘claw’ at the back vertical end of the head. The claw serves a dual purpose, firstly for pulling out nails and secondly for levering timber or nails into position.

2.3. Carpentry Tools and Equipment. The tools and equipment used in carpentry training should help to create a clear understanding for the learners of how they can be used to perform basic tasks in the industry. Alongside the physical nature of the tools, materials such as photographs, brochures, trade magazines, and articles should also be introduced to help create expected mental images of the tools and equipment learners are likely to use in their trade in the future.

3. Plumbing

‘Harris Charcoal’ is the trading arm of The Chartered Institute of Plumbing. Engineers in ancient Rome discovered that the right amount of water prevented steam from over-expanding during heating operations. They used self-contained ‘spitters’ to provide this water. The first modern central heating system was installed by Dr John Davies in 1812. He used a series of connected water-filled pipes to distribute heat in his Northumberland home. This system inspired a generation of scientists, leading to the development and improvement of low-pressure systems for water heating and circulation. While many systems relied on steam from coal-fired furnaces, wealthier townhouses and homes used dedicated stokeholes, tanks, and iron pipes for operation.

Britain’s plumbers and heating engineers play a crucial role in providing essential services to homes and businesses. They are responsible for protecting people from the risks of water and gas leaks. The Chartered Institute of Plumbing is the national body that ensures all plumbers receive thorough training and examination in vocational skills. The Institute offers various training programs, including the ‘Certificate in Plumbing and Heating’ and ‘Diploma in Plumbing and Heating’, which include NVQ 2 qualifications. They also offer the ‘National Diploma in Oil-Fired Technical Services’ at level 4. Students studying at all levels can access grants and loans, with special allowances available for school-leavers and individuals under 21. Those over 21 can apply for the adult learning allowances scheme. In 2013, The Chartered Institute of Plumbing aimed to increase funding from grants and bursaries to £300K for up to 200 students.

3.1. Introduction to Plumbing

Plumbing – the word derives from the Latin word for lead, plumbum – begins with the water supply and continues with distribution, under pressure, to sub-systems promoting efficacy in residential and commercial use of this precious resource through a variety of delivery and discharge of technical processes. In consideration of the energy and carbon use of buildings, plumbing now includes so much more than potable water. In response to the challenges of climate change, measured domestic and commercial water consumption may represent as much as 50% of a building’s sustainable design criteria for energy usage; technology and on-site energy distribution can significantly reduce a building’s ecological footprint. Moreover, water conservation and alternative systems conscripting solar and other renewable energies must be designed using a wealth of information increasingly available and accessible electronically to designers, installers, and regulators.

3.1. Introduction to plumbing. One of the most essential and demanded trades within construction is plumbing. This trade involves working with pipework to give a home running water and the ability to get rid of human waste, as well as a variety of other essential services, including different systems that provide heating and cooling. The work in which plumbers engage, in fitting, maintaining and adapting water systems within domestic and commercial properties of every size and type and seeking to cut carbon emissions while maximizing efficiency, requires physically strong individuals who also have a thorough knowledge of plumbing techniques and standards, and who are capable and skilled in the many aspects of solar and renewable energy technologies arising for plumbing services. Plumbers achieve this knowledge and develop their skills through classroom and hands-on experience acquired via apprenticeship and/or vocational training routes. Once established in the field, high-quality services offered by plumbers are vital in contributing toward the green agenda now driving the industry forward.

3.2. Plumbing Systems and Components

The term “plumbing” is derived from the Latin word for lead. This is an appropriate word since plumbing systems once used for medical purposes were made of lead. Many health problems have been linked to lead poisoning in the past. Ancient Chinese plumbing systems, led by the Qin and Han dynasties, which date back approximately 17 BC, were the first to build pipes and drains from stone and other materials such as pottery and wood. In India, people use engineering methods to build freshwater and wastewater systems. Roman plumbing systems are also widely recognized and used in the construction of aqueducts and sewage systems. Many of these can still be seen in some of the ancient buildings found today. The Romans have also been credited with developing the indoor plumbing we see in various temples and occupation buildings. During the 19th century, improvements in plumbing systems and components focused on improving sanitation and avoiding the problem of waterborne diseases by providing a separate water supply network in the building. During this period, British civil engineers developed bathrooms and systems for personal hygiene. These components have evolved from lead pipes to brass and copper. The metal casting method used in the 19th century was suitable for the creation of solid brass and beautiful bathrooms. In 1941, the British government established the first statutory framework for centralized sanitary technology, consisting of five volumes. More recently, the plumbing system has been supplemented by mechanical, electrical and public health (MEP) systems that allow designers to meet the environmental and sustainability requirements of the building.

British plumbing: The employment of plumbers has gained importance in the UK following government regulations to redress the decline experienced in the past. The consumption of copper tubing in different end-use markets was affected by the increase in global copper prices and the development of alternative materials. The British installation of renewable energy sources with district heating systems can gradually limit the demand for copper in hot water and heating systems. In 2018, global concerns about the environment, specifically the damage caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions due to heating systems, led to many proposals to reduce the United Kingdom’s environmental footprint by promoting the use of more environmentally friendly renewable and low-emissions technologies, like biotechnology and district heating. The need to meet the ever-growing demand for housing remains an important aspect of the construction industry in the UK. From a thermodynamic point of view, water is a high-energy cultural resource. It has a much larger capacity to absorb and transfer heat than the atmosphere. This feature allows the hot-water plumbing systems in buildings to store heat efficiently, providing system operators with the opportunity to move energy from the space in which it is installed and to build a comfortable environment throughout the building.

3.2 Plumbing systems and components.

Plumbing: Guides and resources for training in the UK.

3.3. Plumbing Installation and Repair

The prime role of the plumbing sector of the industry employs lead close-up plumbers. These are the most established and skilled professionals. Once apprenticeships in plumbing have been completed, the next level of experience is generally called many skilled or many plumbing professionals. Plumbers working commercially, by way of the JIB, must be twice tested at the NICEIC to show compliance with the current rules and regulations for combined commercial plumbing. Domestic plumbing is, for the most part, returning to PRSA registration. Instead of studying, these people are known as domestic installers.

Some plumbers deal with new construction outlets (first fix) and can be involved with large construction projects where they install the networks of steel and steel internal buildings that include pipework for heating, including boiler systems, central heating systems, local wiring, sanitation, and drainage systems. Others work in local wiring, consulting on the system design of plumbing, or supervise the installation of complex sanitary and water systems. Most plumbers are involved in the repair, maintenance, and fault identification of the water supply or plumbing and heating systems in current buildings (final fix). There are self-employment and employment opportunities in the industry.

Plumbers install and repair pipes, water supplies, and waste disposal systems, as well as heating and ventilation systems in buildings. Their duties include keeping records and using technical documents for design and installation. Plumbers install, maintain, and repair the systems within domestic and commercial buildings that provide gas, water, and sewerage services. They also enable ventilation and heat buildings by operating heating systems in single-occupancy as well as larger incorporate premises such as hospitals, shopping centers, leisure and entertainment facilities, educational institutions, and offices.

4. Electrical Work

There is a wide range of hazards associated with electrical work. From electrical burns, which can initiate spontaneous combustion of flammable dust, to prolonged exposure to potentially carcinogenic substances or strains and sprains from lifting cables or insulation materials. This is just to name a few. Other commonly reported electrical work-related injuries or ill health include acute poisoning, fractures, concussions, dislocations, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders. Given the nature of the trade, it can be especially difficult to predict the category or type of injury that may arise. For similar reasons, control measures to minimize the risks may also vary. It is crucial that a dynamic and risk-modified approach is therefore taken to reduce the risk of injury and ill health.

Before doing electrical work, ensure that the circuit has been isolated or the equipment has been safely switched off. If you have had to isolate a circuit but for some reason or another need to work with it live, hire a qualified electrician. Another hazard that should be kept in mind when working with or around electrical equipment is static electricity. Precautions against this can include working in a different area after walking across a carpet or being outside when handling plastic bags. Electric arcs, sparks, stored energy, and sharp edges that can cause cuts or punctures are just some examples of hazards associated with electrical equipment.

4.1. Fundamentals of Electrical Work

As mentioned earlier, the fundamental requirement is that there should only be one way in which a particular task or operation can be performed. Properly designed isolation points, and security mechanisms to prevent the accidental release of stored energy, must be installed on all electrical appurtenances to which conductors or circuit components are to be secured or attached. The relevance and efficiency of these mechanisms is determined initially by the nature of the task and must be confirmed during inspection and testing. All these aspects have to be taken into consideration before anyone starts opening or closing any isolation device. The movement of conductors, connections or parts can, of course, happen when isolation marking is inserted manually and in order to do so, could be a serious hazard. You should always use the maximum confidence when initially stopping the circuit during all stages after clipping before opening, closing or closing a disconnector or circuit breaker. Those involved with activities in the area should also fully understand the consequences of incorrect reconnection. You should inform you if you need to make the necessary permits before blocking a disconnector or circuit breaker and that all anticipated measures follow generic electrical safe operating characteristics if necessary to determine the compatibility of the device with the switches with which they control.

This learning module is designed to be a basic introduction to electrical work and will tell you how electrical engineers and electricians use lighting and power installations and will show you how to carry out some basic installation tasks. The module also covers things you need to think about when working on or near electricity-using equipment or wiring. It covers: power and lighting installation; cables and colours; domestic appliances, lights, and power assemblies. The risks and precautions of working on or near electrical wiring. The body is a bad conductor of electricity, which is the reason why a shock received when using an electrical tool or appliance always causes a muscle spasm, particularly in relation to the hand and forearm area. The spasm is often enough to grip the tool or appliance causing the victim to be unable to let go. Care must therefore be taken when handling electrically operated equipment. Everyone will have heard of the “tension” in the air when an overhead transmission line is being worked upon. Maintenance personnel carry out their activities from an aeroplane, usually a helicopter, to minimize the risk of physical contact with the line. Workers should be aware that damage or wear on insulated trailing cables can allow the copper cores to be exposed. The risk of electric shock is minimized if double insulated tools and equipment are used. The use of 110 or 220 volt systems further reduces the risk of electric shock. Most electric shock injuries take place while a person is using faulty equipment.

4.2. Electrical Safety Procedures

If you find it necessary to run any form of extension lead, these should be kept to a minimum and using the 3 core type, which as a rule, should really only be used temporarily and not dug into the construction. Following which, a suitable type of plastic track should be used over the top to avoid any potential damage. You should also do a simple visual check of the leads as a means of ensuring that there are no arching or chaffing wires.

There are a number of electrical installation procedures and electric heating procedures that you can adopt and also consider the works of others. Nine times out of ten, any working wires will trip the electric circuits, protecting you from harm and also turning off the power source automatically. Never, under any circumstances, try to override and defeat the problem that has arisen. There are numerous risk assessment and method statements which are specific to the electrical installations and should be read and adopted before you start any electrical works. However, if time does not permit, you can adopt these samples.

During the construction process, the electrical safety procedures are of very high interest. When we sign and complete the risk assessments and method statements, we can’t really ever envisage all of the potential risks and hazards, so the two procedures really come as an extension of each other. In order to consider potential risks, it also means that we would need to adopt the PPE, not necessarily to do with the work you are doing but for general use.

4.3. Wiring and Circuit Installation

The simplified diagram and accompanying notes provide an insight into the installation of circuits, ready for first fixing. Sundry specific areas within a Domestic Premise, like Showers and Bathrooms, require more of the Arrangements detailed than shown as most Domestic Premises are already subject to the building guide and require inclusion of RCBO/MCCB protection. Consumer Units and other circuit protective features are IP rated to ensure electricity supply, but prevention of nuisance tripping should be the result from use within damp or mire areas. Requests for further information should be directed to the author’s email address. Electricians should refer to all Health and Safety Literature, UK Wiring Regulations, including detailed worksite guidance, produced by statutory and trade organisations, or APAVE and Stroma.

Various methods of installation can be chosen to cater for the demands of each individual work project. The primary schematic reflects the cost of installing all cabling systems ahead of fixing final coverings, ensuring circuits operate as required without added expense for laborious surface or chiselled channel installation, along with redecoration work. It may be augmented by sundry sub-cables housed in appropriate wall or floor channels, alongside floor ducting, cylinders or underfloor space. The second diagram shows a TT System arrangement or an IT System with 100 mA tripping mechanism replacing this with an RCBO or RCD should be considered. As the area to be covered by each circuit and any need for sub-circuits changes, so these can be adapted under advice from a qualified electrician.

5. Bricklaying

The acquired skills and knowledge are related to the construction industry and apply to laying blocks and bricks either face or block built walls. The opportunity has been taken to develop specific, high quality and appropriate assessment models whether testing in training or on-line electronic assessments. By being clear and concise, it has removed the requirement to keep the evidence portfolio. Depending on the learners knowledge, skills and level of responsibility within the workplace, bricklaying competencies can form part of an overall qualification portfolio. The mandatory learning outcomes are transferable and can be used towards completion of a number of assessment criteria. Topics concerned with good building practices known as quality checked working practices cannot be imported or validated in any field of practice. You should ensure that good practice is entered into the workplace as skills, knowledge and understanding are acquired across the whole unit within building and construction.

It is best in all cases, when in receipt of a government grant, to check with the Technology Supplies Ltd Head Office that their manufacturers’ products are acceptable. Regulations change, and are certainly different in Scotland. This pack is designed by Technology Supplies Ltd for teachers who receive training support from their local merchant for the City & Guilds 6218-02 in Bricklaying. There are 8 tasks involved in producing a half-brick stepped end-jointed wall not less than one brick high. Each task represents between 4 and 8 hours of work, depending on skill and knowledge level. The 6218-02 in Bricklaying qualification was introduced by the CITB in 2013 to replace the 6217-02. This involved the reduction of mandatory units, including plastering and the introduction of new for old type assessments on site. The learner is involved in a bricklaying or blocklaying learning and development programme. The learning develops general skills and knowledge.

5.1. Principles of Bricklaying

All construction trades start with ensuring that the site is safe to use for building and that materials can be stored and used securely. After that, measures change from trade to trade. For bricklaying, the next and possibly most important stage of bricklaying is setting and securing the first corners, enabling builders to arrange the site and build walls true to a line and course. Once the wall is being built, maintaining it to ensure it remains in position is important. Walls are built level, and adjustments are much easier to make if builders understand what good ‘flow’ looks like. Then, course and wall alignment affect the strength and visual qualities of the masonry structure. Finally, after building has ceased, the next most important stage is the clearing up of the site. Ongoing work is easier to plan and complete if the site is clean and levels have not changed.

In recent years, there has been a noticeable decline in the numbers of new bricklayers entering the construction market. City and Guilds attributes this both to the number of roles available, but also the limitation in the availability of training spaces. This has led to a skills deficit in construction. A skilled bricklayer must master a range of tasks – from setting and laying out, through to different types of bond and finishes. They must also be able to build in bricks, blocks and stonework, for any number of construction types. As such, learning the bricklaying trade is complex and requires a wide range of tools and consumables. Skilled bricklayers create new buildings, but can also take on restoration work. They use a range of materials including terracotta, pre-cast stone and concrete and can also learn flux pointing techniques.

5.2. Different Types of Bricks and Mortar

Where high strength is needed, solid bricks should be used only in chases, where the bricks are placed in mortar continuously with the rest of the wall. The low price has made second-grade bricks common for unsightly and concealed work, and their use is increasing. Experiments show that a wall built of first and second-grade bricks, nine inches thick, is stronger than one built with first-grade bricks only four and a half inches thick. The saving in mortar is 25% in the case of Rana second bricks. Where the space to be built is very limited, the use of double frogged bricks made by one of another proprietary methods is advocated. Bonding bricks can improve speed and labor costs. They can also reduce the number of cut bricks to a minimum. It forms a fast two-ply wall, taking the first managerial neglect in the first few courses while the bricks are soft. Bonding is only a cheap method of regularization. Bond bricks are a case of money spent rather than money saved.

Solid bricks cannot have any perforations. The limit to which they must conform is a different strength. They are classified into three grades – first, second, and third. Wire-cut or machine bricks are made by the extrusion process configurations, producing a smooth appearance. Frogged or perforated bricks may have round, square, or slotted holes created through the process. These holes are designed to give good bonding, tensile, and compressive strengths. They are useful in applications where a reduction in the weight of the work is desirable. Perforated bricks are the most prevalent.

5.3. Bricklaying Techniques and Patterns

A qualified bricklayer is skillful in using basic hand and powered tools. There are many different hand tools required for laying bricks. For cutting and shaping, such as sinking a brick into the mortar, brick tongs can be used, while brick jointers are used to shape mortar and to create a professional and aesthetically appealing texture. A brick hammer can break sizes into panels. A brick trowel is used to prepare for tight-fitting mortar, and mason’s levels help make sure the wall is even and well-shaped. A safety helmet, gloves, safety glasses, and steel-capped boots should be worn during the construction of the walls. For individuals working on basic wall heights (1.5 m), scaffolding (which can reach three stories) is required. Once you become familiar with these materials, practice with bricks and mortar, and feel like you are prepared to build something more advanced, read our guide on how to lay bricks. View the slideshow to see bricklaying steps.

(i) If you are considering a bricklaying career or you are looking forward to practicing your skills, then this is the correct path. Bricklaying requires dedication and patience, as well as agility, intelligence, and physical vitality. In addition, it is necessary to be able to read and understand plans as well as pay attention to detail.

Bricklaying Techniques and Patterns. This resource can guide you on official apprenticeship requirements for bricklaying in England, approved course qualifications, and relevant trades organizations. The practical step-by-step videos on various aspects of wall construction techniques are also useful guidance. The videos cover topics on how to measure and mark a foundation and how to lay a stretcher bond and corner leads with conclusively wider topics over the embedment of sergeants with arches and lintels. Access the full series of videos on foundation types, bricks and mortar, setting up, basic rules, safe timber scaffolds, scaffold bricklayers double methods, bassing, shop coats, pointing, removing brickwork, and finished.

6. Painting and Decorating

Books by and about painters and decorators give us information on the kind of paints and surface coverings that were available and how these decorating materials would have been applied over the centuries, as well as the types of buildings that were being renovated and for what purpose. The range of examples covered by this category of books demonstrates the different types of clients who might have employed decorators, from rich and powerful organizations such as churches and hospitals to the more humble individuals’ homes. Some of the volumes aimed at the working tradespeople illustrate different decorative motifs or ‘stencil’ preparations that could be used to attract work, demonstrate a decorator’s understanding of current fashions, or give an insight into the sort of stock and suppliers that would have been accessible in the guilds of hundreds of parishes and tens of trades that constituted the organizations in the area in the Home Counties.

Painting and decorating. The painting and decorating trade. Painting and decorating. The painting and decorating trade. The information covers: The painting and decorating trade. Health and safety. Language. Useful information. Brief history of painting and decorating. Construction of factories and houses in the 19th century. Decoration of these buildings. Summary. Painting and decorating trade. This category of the British Library’s full-text collections includes books by and about tradespeople. These books give us a glimpse into the everyday lives, aspirations, and concerns of ordinary working people, as well as the challenges they faced. We can even find out how trades such as bookbinding, basket weaving, and drapery work were done.

6.1. Surface Preparation and Repair

– Concrete surface preparation, formwork for surface repairs, reinforcement for surface repairs. Pouring and finishing the surface repair. Concrete surface repair (float or formed). Concrete surface preparation. Chainsaw for concrete surface preparation. As concrete surface preparation. Course for concrete surface preparation. Hammer drill. Approved construction scheme: floor prop (heavy duty), herringbone strutting (dimmer/block and beam floors), oversite preparation and installation of damp proof courses, reinforced concrete slab, tie wires.

Construction skills training and materials: concrete surface preparation and repair, includes information on surface preparation, surface repairs, preparation and placement of repair materials. Approved construction scheme: composite systems, reinforced concrete walls and floor(s), repair of masonry walls. It is recommended that the employer visit the specialist work area. Guides include a wide range of skills for different levels of training.

Syllabus and solutions for specific trades within construction in the UK. Guides and resources for training in specific trades within construction in the UK.

6.2. Paint Application Techniques

This could be especially true when working with certain kinds of acrylic or water-based coatings. While there appear to be so many different painting methodologies to choose from – spray, brush, roller, or by some other means – especially with today’s modern paints and coatings, but one thing is certain: it will always be in everyone’s best interest to follow the product’s manufacturer’s recommendations, whether they are found in a printed form or in the warranty. Always remember that room temperatures are going to be very different than the temperatures of the other projects that greatly affect the work. Thereby, the smaller the temperature change involved can determine the final finish applied to the surface.

The techniques used to apply paint can not only determine the quality of the work completed, but also the efficiency of the work. Rolling and brushing are two of the most common techniques used by painters, but there are others. For very specific results on fine trimming – that rolling and brushing can never accomplish – such as some kinds of trim work, maybe doors, cabinets, or other kinds of wooden furniture, a third method might be more appropriate, and that is spraying. This could be assigned for the opposite reason, because a brush or roller would not give the desired finish, requiring a spray. There are also times when it might be more appropriate to roll than to brush.

6.3. Wallpapering and Decorative Finishes

Apprenticeship grants have been developed to encourage young people and employers to consider apprenticeship training as a viable option. These grants remove the financial barriers that often prevent young people from completing apprenticeships. Over the winter of 2001, development in the UK painting and decorating industry led to the following prescribed issues being written for the Painting and Decorating National Vocational Qualifications: Prepare and Work on a Specialist Surface, Install Specialist Papers, Produce Broken-Colour Work and Injection Sprayed Specialist Finishes, Prepare and Apply Gilding Materials or Faux Finishes, Install Decorative Products, Estimate Painting and Decorating Work, and Contribute to Pricing and Securing Work. These have suggested training routes and are based on typical tasks and the need for trainees to be assessed in isolation of other trades when compiling portfolios.

Once apprentices have completed the foundation of painting and decorating training, they can choose the strand of painting and decorating that they feel most comfortable in for the second year. Apprentice training in wallpapering and decorative finishes is designed to take three years, but often the trainee decorators will stay for an extra year of practical training due to not completing all of the prescribed items of training. Painting and decorating training focuses on practical skills, while the advanced painting and decorating NVQ focuses on knowledge and understanding. Approximately 150 full-time courses are available to college students.

7. Plastering

The many tasks that a plasterer can carry out include screeding, moulding, installing metal (or wooden) stud partitions, applying dry lining fibre plasterboard, working with lath and plaster in timber frame building as well as reproducing it with Calcium Silicate on lath, plastering a swimming pool, insulating and boarding walls and ceilings to protect them from fire, sound, and/or damp. Although the majority of work is undertaken internally, cracks appearing due to age or movement in external walls, door and window reveals, cornices, and returns on the front elevation of all buildings can be replaced with a like-for-like mix of materials to match the original appearance. Knowing when to use the correct type and mix is the marketable skill that takes time, and through experience gained working with specialist subcontractors is excellent preparation for business start-up.

Plasterers make walls and ceilings smooth and ready to be decorated. If you have an artistic eye and love reading architects’ drawings, then plastering could be the career for you. In this guide, we cover traditional plastering skills including using a range of materials to create smooth walls and ceilings and decorative architraves, columns, and cornices. In reality, most of a modern tradesperson’s work is devoted to renovation projects, working on listed buildings or those with architectural features using the same methods or materials. If you’re a practical person with an eye for detail, this career could be a perfect fit.

7.1. Plastering Tools and Materials

This trowel has two die-cut edges and a plastic handle for maneuvering. It is used to create the corners of two adjoining walls. It is every plasterer’s best friend if used correctly. The trick with using a corner trowel is to do it all at once, to keep the corner trowel as vertical as possible. This not only makes for a neat finish but also reduces the nicking that will be required once the plaster has been left for the time that it requires, so that it is hard enough not to be affected by the trowelling process.

Corner trowel

Every plasterer will have a trowel or, at the very least, a float. Whatever you prefer to call it, every plasterer uses one! They are used to smooth the surface of the plaster and to create different types of mouldings. The size and shape of the blade vary, and the most common form of trowel or float used by a plasterer today is the rectangular-shaped trowel. The more experienced plasterers prefer to use a wooden-handled trowel, but these are more expensive and must also be checked for quality. The blade must not be sloppy, or the trowel will be very difficult to control when it is being used to smooth the surface of the plaster you are working on.

Trowel or Float


7.2. Plastering Techniques and Finishes

This is a training manual that has been developed to help students learn to plaster, both at college and beyond. The information will be of use to people who know the basics of plastering but would like further information on the finishing stages.

At this point, the publication includes the section on ‘Renders: Plastering Tools’. This provides technical notes on the use of PVC angle beads and mesh corner trims. At this point, marble ale finishes in Malta are pointed out.

This publication has three sections to support learning: • Plastering Tools. • Plaster Mixes. • Step by Step Exterior Finishes. This includes interviews, technical information, and visual explanations to help people learn the skills. It also includes information on lime finishes and cementitious finishes.

7.2.2. Tools, Techniques and Getting it Right First Time

As part of the introductory section, this publication outlines the necessity to focus on ‘Compliance with Health and Safety’. This information has been developed and can be used to explain the need for following regulations and guidelines on the use of materials.

7.2.1. Health and Safety

7.3. Repairing and Patching Plaster

Regular lime washing of walls and the fitting of the correct wall vents will ensure good ventilation to the building. Small amounts of movement between building elements are general and to be expected in traditional houses. Regular maintenance will help in the early recognition of problems.

How to fix crumbling plaster. Small repairs to lime rendering can be addressed by pouring a lime mix into a frame of strong paper. Then, when set, it is applied to the hole, scored lines, and when the first coat is dry, a thin spatter coat of lime and water mix is then applied. Use a craft knife to cut out any damp-affected plaster and let the area dry before assessing it for repair.

How to repair and patch plaster and lath walls and ceilings. In some housing today, it is still the traditional timber laths and lime plaster materials that are on the walls and ceilings. After years, these walls can crack due to building movement, and the walls and ceilings can become affected by damp, which can, in turn, cause rot in the traditional wall sketches or woodwork.

8. Roofing

By far the most common means of vapor extraction is through the ridge on the top of the roof. Where ventilation or light is needed in the field of the roof, a lantern light may be specified, usually in a flat roof, and this will curb the light or vent and provide the required waterproofing. A prerequisite for any work at height requiring personal protection, such as slating, is that there are ongoing inspections of the falls and boards by the fit operative. Simple measures may also be taken in the uplift section to help avoid a drop, such as fitting net dishes. Ensuring that the force applied is always downwards and at an angle to the body may help to mitigate the risk of muscle strain in the back.

There is a wide range of materials, methods, and skills involved in the job of the roofing operative. The main areas of a slating and tiling cover are: The support structure consists of the trusses (also called the roof timbers) and, in a fully traditional roof, the joists. The battens are horizontal members running along the inclination of the pitch and attached at regular intervals called the gauge to the rafters. The lath, in some cases, is also a horizontal member and is fastened to the counter. In the roof covering, the tiles (or slates) are the individual elements spanning between the main members, and an underlay is placed under them. The various junctions on a roof, such as around chimneys and roof lights, are vulnerable to rain penetration, so there must be a method of incorporating waterproofing at these places. To allow moist air to escape, some form of venting must be included within the field of the roof.

8.1. Roofing Materials and Types

It is important to reiterate that the water in circulation in the environment goes through the hydrological cycle, to evaporate, condense, fall down on land, and then return to the sea. This process has the aim of giving back lead through plants and animals present on the Earth. Therefore, the problem of the presence of water can be overcome by a suitable material capable of capturing the water, channeling it, and evacuating it appropriately outside the closed environment. The material that makes up the roof must be able to achieve this, in addition to having a high mechanical resistance. When looking at the sealing materials, the evidence and the skills of the owners, often reduced to quiet reality, are an impoverished part of the context and exclusivistic dignity of the profession. However, people who work in the design sector can be traced back to narrow professional branches for the market trends on the level of activity they have to carry design drawings and further of the usage cost.

Artificial and synthetic material, on the other hand, have to be referred in energy manufacturing and disposal. There are only a few types of roofs which are considered today as the typical roofs such as the flat filter roof, the saddle roof made of common roofing tiles, or the hanging roof made of pile or thatch. Today, there are many types of materials for roofing. When choosing a material, it is advisable to consider the cost, stealthiness, durability, and energy saving of the material. Also, there are not many or two types of materials for sealing. The most common sealing materials are sheet, slates, concrete, tiles, and metal wares and other thin single. For sealing of the roofs, each material has pros and cons, so it is advisable to choose a suitable material. Maintaining a seal is important for increasing the life of the roof and for the intended use. Indeed, the right formalization techniques must consider compatibility, so the material must be adequately laid to avoid any water infiltration.

When it comes to roofing, there are vast materials and different types of construction: from the simple felt roof to the barrel roof or tent roof. The range of materials and the enormous costs that these materials cover is immense. These must be chosen with great care. Not only must the technical features be compatible with the individual construction and the desired function of the roof, but also compatibility to the environment and the external appearance must be guaranteed. Natural materials – that includes thatch roofs – undergo a certain process which involves obtaining the material with its ecological cycle.

8.2. Roof Installation and Maintenance

Description of occupation / skills: Roofers / apprenticeships. The Timber Research and Development Association offers a course titled Understanding wood for roof trusses for those involved in designing and detailing trusses, and roof installers. Duration: one day. To obtain a card that shows that they are a CSCS cardholder, people have to prove that they have the required qualifications or that they are working towards them. The following illustrate some of the learning providers who offer training that is eligible for the qualification assessed by the CITB Health, safety and environment test, required for most of the cards. However, often, Unionlearn or National Careers Service provide training to prepare for this test for free for union members or 16-18 year-olds. If you are not a member of these groups and you do not meet these criteria, you should contact directly the testing and training providers for information on their availability and price.

Using the resources listed here, you can find the training options offered or supported by employers in various trades within construction. The first listings for each trade come from the Unionlearn UnionConnect database and include details of the learning providers who offer the training. The Unionlearn database covers face-to-face provision in the UK. After the Unionlearn listings, you will find other sources which include online provision, both short courses and full qualifications, which are suitable for people working in the trade or for those who employ them. Just like in the rest of the guide, the sections of the listings are links, so that you can easily jump to the details of interest. Each section starts with links to a brief description of the occupation, the main skills that are needed to do the job, and any apprenticeship framework. At the end of the guide, you will also find industry-recommended web resources and videos.

8.3. Roof Repair and Replacement

(ii) Repairing a traditional timber and tile roof. The essential features of the roof of a historical building are usually an integral part of the building; therefore, it is often important that a roof is not replaced by a new one, but cleverly repaired and reinstated with the same or similar materials following the original design. Consideration should be given to keeping a valuable craft alive, avoiding the depletion of natural resources due to the use of modern materials with a limited lifespan, and the loss of traditional skills. It is important to find local, experienced craftsmen, preferably with past experience of repairing a roof similar to this one. If local repair craftsmen cannot be found, rigorously trained trainees must be found and intensively trained. The proper installation of traditional roofing materials when rebuilding a historic roof will later reduce the need for future interventions and secure the long-term preservation of the building.

(i) Roof repair and replacement. Roof conditions vary from building to building. There may be flattened valleys in pitched roofs or cracked flat roof coverings. Large amounts of water can penetrate through a small defect. It is usually cost effective to attend to roof problems as soon as they are noticed. Modern roofing materials have a good service life and historical buildings have usually been re-roofed a number of times. Routine care such as clearing the gutters of leaves and debris and minor maintenance such as tightening fixings and replacing broken or missing roofing materials will prevent small defects from developing into more serious problems, prolonging the life of the roof covering considerably. Modern roofing materials should not be used on a historic building, traditional lime mortars have their own specifications for every required use.

9. Tiling

Tiling is not only to improve the aesthetic features of an area but the materials required and methods used will also be influenced by the place of work. It is carried out in a range of structures and buildings from ancient buildings to new modern buildings. The water penetration, wear and tear, thermal expansion and contraction, exposure to heat, and other environmental factors can cause the damage over time and tiling would continue to undergo its challenges. This section looks at the key issues that need to be considered when viewing a tiling project, from the initial stages of the project through to the finished project. There are UK national occupational standards in Wall and Floor Tiling Trade and this section has been written from a linear representation of the trade. There are also qualifications required at higher standards of competence, namely the Basic Skill and the Diploma, similar to the Scaffolders training route.

This short guide outlines what tile fixers do in the construction industry, the function and presenting issues of tiling, and the UK standards and qualifications required to be a professional. It includes an introduction, function and presentation of tiling, UK national standards of competency, overall training and assessment, and progression into other construction trades. Tile fixers cut and lay tile in bathrooms, kitchens, swimming pools, and even outside buildings or structures. These structures need to withstand both the effects of climate and the wear and tear of continual use. Tiling covers a range of different types of tiles, such as ceramic, porcelain, slate, marble, terrazzo, clay, stone, etc.

9.1. Tile Selection and Preparation

There is nothing more frustrating to a tiler than to have to work with a mark or fault in the floor or wall tile. All the painstaking endeavors to ensure the tiles are flat, level, even, plumb, grout lines being the desired width, and the finish looking good can be jeopardized at the very start by using the wrong tiles. Contractors must establish a satisfactory method of setting out the room with the tiles in relation to the floor and wall thresholds. Tile or floor layout is crucial when walls are not true, and when various thickness unit tiles are to be utilized, floor tiling layouts can create problems, with the possibility of having small slithers of tiles hidden under sanitary ware, for example, not forming part of the tiling pattern and layout.

One of the most important suppliers to the tiling and flooring industries is often the tiler or flooring contractor. The products used in any building can be of the highest quality, but if they are not properly positioned into place as the manufacturer has intended, the end users can be sorely disappointed. Selecting both the correct product for the application and the correct tiling contractor to implement it is the key to a successful tiling finish.

9.2. Tile Installation Techniques

Tiles can be set quite accurately, such that high-quality finishes are possible. The tile sizes can therefore be used to make a guide to other work, e.g. built-in bathroom furniture. It can also be left unfinished, known as setting the plaster. Tiles are traditionally a ‘workmanlike’ finish: that is, the work should be completed tidily and with a minimum visible joints. It is commonly recessed and is used at structural joints or where plaster has cracked before there was time to fill the finish. However, shows us the artisan-like connotations of artistic, or ‘work cover’ finishes, perhaps seen in interior design as inlay when the carpenter is working in polished wood. In both cases, it can be said that the artistic approach to the skill of tilers tends to be more expensive than that of the plasterer, and so the relevant architectural details tend to be left as much as possible.

The many purposes of ceramic tiles demand a wide range of visual and performance characteristics. Ceramic tiles are used because of their water and fire-resistant properties, sound resistance, aesthetics, durability, and economy. There are tiles which are resistant to staining (vitrified), with low water absorption (porous tiles), frost resistant, low friction (slip-resistant) or conductive, and generally there are tiles to suit every particular requirement. The many uses of ceramic tiles are spread over the whole of construction, but they are a valuable and particularly versatile trade. This article provides a brief guide to the most common tile installation techniques.

9.3. Grouting and Sealing Tiles

Unsuitable surfaces: The suitability of substrates to receive tiles is one of the factors that can lead to problems with smooth finishes. Most tile adhesive companies and grout manufacturers recommend specific backgrounds and substrates. Manufacturers give approval when substrates have been primed and have the correct mechanical properties. The substrate must have the right texture, soundness, and strength. The substrate must be checked, evaluated, and if necessary, prepared. Most cleaning companies, sealant companies, and clients prefer substrates that are rigid and that reduce the possibility of shrinkage cracks.

Sealants are used around windows, external doors, baths, and basins, worktops, and sinks as a wet seal to prevent water from damaging the surfaces to which they are attached. They also cover any gaps caused by mild movement of the surfaces over which they are applied. Walls generally expand because of temperature, the amount of moisture in the structure, and the absorption of water. Sealant industrial specialists in the UK are responsible for grouting, sealing tiles, and other tasks. They mix and apply grout on the mortar bed to receive tile joints. The sealant around sanitaryware is laid on the edges of the dishes and baths that are already covered with the adhesive and on top of the non-treated glaze tiles once they are in a vertical position.

10. Health and Safety in Construction

Restoring Britain’s built environment, creating a trained, dynamic workforce that inspires British business to grow. A 2012 report in response to the construction industry’s experience emerging from a deep recession and its growth prospects. It recommended bringing a greater focus to the development and implementation of training solutions in the construction industry and other related areas, with a particular emphasis on health and safety. The report’s vision “sees the workplace of employees free from accidents and ill-health, with a renewed focus on all stakeholders’ role in delivering the highest health and safety standards.” An important goal that is still aspirational in today’s construction operations.

This guide provides access to various resources on the work health and safety of construction industry workers, including general issues, apprentice training, and special aspects of particular trades. The range of safety resources is not comprehensive; rather, it is a good representation of construction workplace occupational safety and health information, with an emphasis on apprentice and young workers. It does not include Australian laws and regulations, although Australia is particularly active in industry “workplace safety” education. The comprehensive Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011 (Commonwealth of Australia) are referred to, particularly with respect to training requirements for apprentices. Thus, resources are recommended to Australian trade trainers by Australian Government and State Health and Safety organisations.

10.1. Construction Site Safety Regulations

All accidents and injuries must be reported and should be documented in the Site Safety File. Employees who handle hazardous substances must use the controls specified by the company to minimize the risk. You may not change, alter, remove, or attempt to change, alter or remove any guard or safety control from machinery or equipment. Unauthorized use of things that are unsafe is also prohibited. Carry out your work in a safe manner and do not compromise the safety of yourself or others. Follow all safety instructions as work progresses. If you are suffering from an injury or disability that may affect the health and safety of yourself or others while on site, then you must declare this to your supervisor before you commence work. All such potential hazards should be documented. Periodically check the First Aid Box and restock where necessary.

Keep the site clean and tidy. Before using machinery or tools, ensure they have been properly maintained and checked. Ensure that you have been correctly trained before using machinery or tools. Wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment and clothing at all times. Suitable clothing must be provided, this may include wet weather and cold weather gear.

Report all accidents, incidents or near misses to your supervisor immediately. However minor the incident may seem, it must be reported. Learn the site evacuation procedures. Know your designated area.

General safety rules and regulations in the Construction Site Health and Safety Plan are expressed in the positive and are therefore within the control of the employee.

10.2. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential in the construction industry because it protects the four high-risk areas: feet, eyes, hands, and heads. The main risks in construction are impacts, splashes, dust, cuts, fractures, electricity, heat, and noise, which can all be protected against with PPE. PPE should be used whenever high-risk work is being carried out and is often assessed and given out as part of the company’s risk assessments and method statements. PPE is used to prevent long-term deviation in health, such as lifelong diseases that arise from acids and alkalis, wood pine-related diseases, silicosis from cement products, vibration white finger from using chainsaws and vibration tools, and deafness from loud noises.

10.3. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

We are committed to safety training, and all necessary records regarding employee training will be maintained in our corporate offices. Management will take the necessary steps to ensure that employees are trained in the proper and safe completion of activities, as well as to learn to recognize environmental or work-related hazards. Management shall be responsible for implementing programs, providing personal protective equipment, and assuring that employees attend the necessary safety classes. A full set of guidelines, a copy of which must be kept where the employee is working, in addition to being logged into the employee’s training records. In August 1998, the Construction Industry Advisory Committee issued a guidance note on the “Management of Health and Safety at Work,” persons such as the design team, main contractor, and main subcontractors appoint as responsibilities for occupational health and safety on site. This appointee must produce a Construction Health and Safety Plan complying with the requirements of the Regulations.

It is important to appreciate that it’s impossible to eliminate all risks in construction. Indeed, a construction site, by its very nature, is a risk-laden environment. The intention of the Construction Design and Management Regulations, 1994, and the Construction Health and Safety “Safety Policy” is to acknowledge that the safety and efficiency of our operation are dependent on the attitude and skill of our employees and supervisors. It is our belief that a sound, active safety program is a must for the success of our operation and the well-being of our employees. These precautions and procedures were prepared for the guidance of our personnel in the performance of all field activities. Properly employed, these procedures will reduce the dangers of the construction process and significantly reduce exposure to liability. Some of our customers have their own specialized safety programs, and where appropriate, we will work with these programs. Depending upon regional variations of construction practices, some of the instructions and procedures may need to be adapted.

11. Building Regulations and Codes

However, in order to prepare you properly for your future careers in construction, this subject requires a greater depth of study and understanding. It is an essential part of the practice of a building professional to be familiar with the rules that apply to building work during the construction phase. This information is essential in relation to several aspects of construction work including the rules set by the Local Authority Building Control, the Building Act itself, the Building Regulations, and the Approved Documents. Some civil servants in countries such as the UK are employed by specialist “authorities” who administer, supervise and enforce the building regulations, and other regulations relating to building work.

Following an introduction that outlines how Building Regulations might impact on your work on the building site, this section is intended to act as a summary of the subject of construction law to you as students, to give you the core of the subject in outline for easy reference, and to present the material for revision purposes.

Part 11 begins by briefly setting out the intention of the Building Regulations, before moving on to descriptions of the various types of regulations in the regime, divided into the following sections: Part A (Structure), Part B (Fire Safety), Part C (Site Preparation and Resistance to Contaminants and Moisture), Part D (Toxic Substances), Part E (Resistance to the Passage of Sound), Part F (Ventilation), Part G (Sanitation, Hot Water Safety, and Water Efficiency), Part H (Drainage and Waste Disposal), Part J (Heat Producing Appliances and Fuel Storage Systems), Part K (Protection from Falling, Collision and Impact), Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power), Part M (Access to and Use of Buildings), Part N (Glazing Safety), Part P (Electrical Safety), and the Care in the Construction of Buildings.

11.1. Understanding Building Regulations

Energy performance benchmarks for air-conditioning and ventilation systems are in place for both larger commercial buildings and smaller residential type applications. In this context, the present study analyzes the variability of the energy efficiency of ventilation systems on a sample of Sunderland schools in the north of England, making use of measured outdoor and indoor CO2 concentrations and validated energy models of these buildings. The results of the study show that the early implementation of the current energy performance requirement for ventilation and air conditioning systems in non-domestic buildings may have resulted in substandard buildings, which have a negative impact on energy use, indoor air quality, and building ecology. Almost half the sample fails to meet either air-tightness or ventilation rates or both. Best practice ventilation is important not only in the context of energy efficiency but it is also relevant to comply with the UK building regulations requirement to safeguard the provision of acceptable indoor air quality.

In England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, building regulations are set that apply to certain new buildings and to the alteration, improvement, and extension of existing buildings. They also set performance standards for construction in the UK. Parts F1, F2, and L1A in England and Wales set minimum ventilation rates, and Part L1A in Scotland and Northern Ireland set minimum ventilation rates and specify a minimum performance standard for air permeability. Part F1 – Ventilation of these regulations requires new buildings to have sufficient space for air infiltration in order to deliver good indoor air quality, which is increased when additional sources of pollution are present. The systems that provide buildings with adequate ventilation must also be as energy efficient as possible. Schools are an important category of such buildings, and the European labeling scheme includes them among the public buildings that must undergo energy certification. The calculation of the energy performance of buildings includes a numerical indicator which could vary from a low score (letter A) meaning very energy efficient to a high score (letter G) for very low energy efficiency.

11.2. Compliance with Construction Codes

This is resolved with good technical knowledge and reasoning, and it is for this reason that only those who have the professional ability to provide the necessary information for the certification of the construction as a finished object with characteristics that make it fully usable and safe, from a point of view of some fundamental principles can be designers. During maintenance and its lifetime, all works subjected to regulatory obligations (those intended for public and private use) also have an owner’s manual, which grows with bio-construction. A digital building system that increasingly includes further documentation relating to management processes. This means that digital documentation is the transposition of the concepts formalized in the derogating acts, hence the conditions and requirements, as well as the explanatory drawings are produced by the study that, with the DSP, demonstrates compliance with those same derogating principles. It is from this concept of bio-coherence. Following the design, it is built based on the information received by the site, always ensuring the presence of the components referenced by the DSP, the very use of these materials contributes to the satisfaction in the executive phase, of the requirements concerning the realization of characteristic resistance prevention C2. Building in a biocriteriato way allows to harmonize the connections between towns and citizens with the surrounding landscape and offers a green and evolvable tool at the same time, for the winter alpine landscape.

When constructing a building, one of the most important considerations is compliance with the construction codes. These codes are established based on paradigms that ensure the safety and welfare of people, both during construction and over the lifetime of the building. There are some stages that are essential for a construction company to comply with codes, including review of documentation during the pre-project phase, ensuring that compliance verification activities are performed, and that documentation is retained, and also involving people and entities with specific knowledge to certify the compliance of premises and criteria. The project is a limited entity, in which the responsible team discusses concepts, reaches conclusions, presents ideas, but it is not only intended to provide documentation to apply for regulatory compliance. During the project phase, technical problems are addressed in a localized and exclusive manner. Project development, drawing, and specification design have an intrinsic purpose, which is the satisfaction of the client’s needs, even the unenounced needs.

11.3. Building Inspections and Certifications

Guides, tools and presentations are freely available through a higher education funding council for England catalyst funded project to develop and sustain a range of sector-specific tools and resources to support the national UK drive towards a low carbon building stock. These hands-on simple guides break down the knowledge barriers that prevent widespread UK construction and building service uptake of reasonable skill level ‘new construction’ and ‘existing building’ thermal performance and fabric air tightness solutions. I took a look at one of the building guides and found it to be quite good. I can see they can help the general public understand the need for higher performance in building construction moving towards the 2016 changes to the new Part L building regulations for England, as well as function as a good basic level introduction to general architectural building design/product design undergraduate students needing to understand basic performance targets for architectural products.

Our short guides on building inspections and certification have been developed with government-approved certifiers that are registered and operate in Scotland. They cover supporting information about domestic and non-domestic buildings up to 100m in height, existing, new and converted. They can be adapted for specific businesses across the UK. These guides explain why the level and detail of certification of an entity’s construction and installation work is likely to be of interest and importance in the context of inspection responsibilities that have to be delegated under the Building (Scotland) Act 2003. They cover how certified construction and installation work is likely to have important implications for site and building management, and also how best practice preparation and access to all relevant certificates could help delegates.

12. Construction Project Management

Guides and Resources for Training in Specific Trades within Construction in the UK. In this chapter, you can find construction courses and study programs which include various construction specializations. These professional studies cover architectural, civil, mechanical, and other construction-related and operational occupations, and focus on the performance of construction works and buildings. The construction law, organization and the implementation of construction work, construction production technologies and systems, economics, and computer management, as well as law, economics, and ethical aspects of construction-related work, are also covered”.

Journals which are useful for students to subscribe to, including Building, Building Research and Information, Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Building Engineer, Building Design, Building Research and Information, Building, British Journal of Acoustics, Building Construction and Design, Building Environments, Building Research and Information, Building Simulation Journal, Building and Environment, Building Simulation, and, preferably with or after completion of study, Business Services Industry Research and Development. Suggestions for latest new releases for books and articles should be made via the INTERNET site. A selection of resources available on-line and in printed format about house construction and manufacturing engineering. Better yet, the resources should contain a useful number of case studies to be used as reference materials for future use by practitioners.

A list of books and journals for topics related to construction project management. Also, the MBA in construction management: a selected study list of recommended readings edited by a joint committee of the Association of Construction Management Educators and the Construction Industry Institute. This list includes a bibliography of over 750 references. The Project Planning and Control: The ultimate handbook on planning, management, and delivery of projects is a forum for the best of new practice and top tips of professional project managers. This most useful compendium of project-related knowledge was published by the Chartered Institute of Building, Ascot. PM World Library. Project Management for Review by David C. Parsons, available at PM World Library.

12.1. Project Planning and Scheduling

New and seasoned project managers should be trained in the communication and team-building activities and skills needed to consistently deliver quality projects. A medium to large project in construction will involve many workers, many different organizations such as the main contractor, subcontractors, design professionals, and suppliers that must interact with each other and communicate with the project manager to successfully execute the project. In contrast to this integrated team approach, a poorly organized relationship prism that enforces many different types of conflicting behavior may result in friction. When the relationship network is not coordinated and requires the team to be interdependent – many individuals grouped as a team – this can lead to a loss of productivity. A commitment to tight coordination must be established in order to succeed with total quality and few conflicts. For this reason, the matured project manager must improve complex performance measurements, equipment usages, materials, knowledge, and, most importantly, the utilization of the skilled crafts who design and build the system.

Road and bridge construction projects vary in nature, scope, and size. Some projects may be over in a matter of months, while others can last many years. A variety of models or systems for project planning and scheduling have been developed over the years. In the traditional approach, precedence and critical path methods are still commonly used in construction, but with the introduction and availability of powerful computers that can process vast amounts of data, simulation and other advanced, powerful planning and scheduling tools are increasingly becoming the norm in construction project management.

12.2. Budgeting and Cost Control

There are a number of entry-level courses in budgeting and cost control both for home wiring (HWD) and electrical installation. Generally, these are about 28 hours each. The syllabus is expected to be universal across BTEC, City and Guilds and NIC. Topics include asset registration as well as pre-contract costing, cost forecasting, post contract costing, tax and other operational costing, etc. including use of manual accounting and computer software, such as Excel and accounting software.

does not know of any construction-specific resources available. Training providers that service a number of trades seem to be able to offer Level 3 courses in construction management. CIOB in particular, at the time of checking over 2 years, have Level 3 courses available. In 2019, a perusal of the six largest UK bookshop websites did not uncover any print resources specific to the construction industry for the subject, neither for BTEC Level 3 nor for any level or any board at AS or A Level. The best online notes for Level 3 construction offered on these websites at that time for this subject are, in authors’ views, those by CIOB and with a cost of £12.76 for each of the modules, are far from cheap. Firms like CITB and FedEd do not cover this trade. The Adept Learning website reported as related to CIOB and AO has study materials level 3 but the establishment is reported as located in Birmingham, Solihull, Warwick so it is not clear if it is related to the specification, nor is anything about the establishment found on its website.

12.3. Communication and Team Management

Good advice may, therefore, be very simple: take every opportunity to discuss, and if necessary, remind the team of their goals. Good work cannot be achieved without working with the site team. Team-working should take place with regard to “emerging developments within the team” and “specific instruction and feedback”, relative to individual and work-team goals and targets, as well as “the general state of the processes in the work-team”. Task-related advice will be: if a task is beyond one’s capability to handle, it is important to delegate the task in the event of an emergency. The site team should discuss the best means of performing the tasks in order to achieve the desired target. The structural design and operational responsibilities should be distributed evenly amongst the team, maximizing site output.

In construction, we very often work as part of a team which includes people who may have goals that are different from our own. Some people are not good at communicating, and some people working in construction feel under strain unless things that are worrying them are discussed. Team working may cover coping with things they are asked to do and things they don’t understand, and may involve emerging developments in the team, general instruction and feedback, relative to individual and work-team goals and targets, and the general state of the processes in the work-team. Team-working may also include what you can and cannot handle on your own. It is important to delegate the task you can’t handle if the operators are working in full and if the task is of emergency, you should mention this clearly. The structural design and operational responsibilities should be distributed evenly amongst the employees, but nothing important should be ignored as this is crucial in order for the site team to work effectively. It is important to organize the site team to produce maximum output and to work effectively within the organization to achieve the project goals.