Emerging Technologies in Construction and their Implications for Training

1. Introduction

Emerging technologies in construction have several categories actively developing their products for construction. These categories are construction applications and concerned technologies. The top students from the University of Illinois Department of Civil Engineering worked on developing these applications in the top-ranked departments of construction engineering and management. Then, with the support from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, we met with leading computer scientists looking at construction problems in the Computational Science and Engineering Department. The combination of the students, all perspectives, and the different types of knowledge has proved to be effective in getting closer to the vision of the future – of construction machinery safely managed by a CIO – a construction Intelligence Officer. The combination was achieved along with various other strides in the different levels of construction research.

Emerging technologies in construction and their implications for training are topics that this working group has discussed for many sessions over the past year. This document describes the eye-opening experiences of several participants in the field of construction work. These new topics related to emerging technologies in construction range from the debris penetration device to fully automated equipment, and the additions are evidence of a fast-moving field that is rich with potential challenges for training. The next section briefly describes recent construction research at the University of Illinois. The subsequent sections list emerging technologies that some of us saw while visiting various construction sites, and all of us hope to eventually see them when they come to us through our construction teaching, service, and research.

2. Building Information Modelling (BIM)

In the United States, BIM is expected to be mandatory for all federal public projects by 2020. It is important to note that BIM processes and technologies are not directly exportable to other countries, as the practices of the industry vary from region to region. When BIM concepts gained traction in the United States, for example, British consultants were too quick to adopt these processes to European building models, and they failed to consider construction legislation in Continental Europe. As a result, these companies claimed that BIM did not work and could not look at potential challenges. European consultants took advantage of this and continue to provide advice on BIM implementation that reflects international guidelines and requirements for European construction companies.

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the most rapidly emerging technologies currently in the construction industry. BIM arose from efforts to create a standard format for the design, construction, and operation of building information models because engineers and architects had different ways to represent three-dimensional building models with standard CAD tools. These tools were generally three-dimensional drawing tools which produce a mirror image of the building but not the information contained within the buildings. Engineers and architects then began to use these three-dimensional models across software platforms and subsequently created different formats which could accommodate their own design processes, which could involve different design activities at any point in time. For instance, during the design of a skyscraper, structural models, fire safety designs, detailed architectural spaces, services, equipment, and other systems should be integrated equally.

2.1 Benefits of BIM in Construction

There are several advantages of having a coordinated and collaborative 3D model with rich information. With BIM, the building model and plan coexist and can be viewed in any enlargement or view the user wishes to select any object on the drawing and can acquire data (information) about the object. Having a visualization of the building provides several benefits, one of which is to ensure that there are no overlapping elements. It assists the project team in detecting many issues, such as potential conflicts among diverse systems of a building caused by structural and MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing) components. BIM also allows participants from different disciplines to coordinate their work in a much-advanced manner. In the initial stages of a project, BIM provides insights into estimating stocked or out-of-stock products or even those that were discontinued, providing an opportunity to make a suitable substitution. This prevents project delays and subsequent costs. BIM tools have the capabilities to take off sizes and quantities for construction estimating. It can also provide quantity takeoff data at the schematic level, allowing for easier and more cost-effective value engineering.

Since its introduction, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become a vital tool in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. BIM projects are adopting and using data-rich 3D models, which disclose more information about the building in the design phase, such as information about walls, floors, and the materials and finishes that will be used. These models are also referred to as data-driven models. Besides rich data, there are other benefits due to BIM in construction, such as early detection of flaws, greater coordination among construction professionals, accurate estimates, and cost savings.

2.2 Challenges in Implementing BIM

The foreseeable need to close this chasm between academia and industry has driven the adoption of BIM into the lower level of the construction curriculum, such as in the conceptual design courses of CEA-BIM in the United States or in Southex TAD classes to the project. Reduce and construction of architectural ceramics in Hong Kong. While the curricular reforms adopted by these institutions are commendable, accreditation criteria rarely require educators to possess a construction professional license in addition to an advanced degree in construction. This knowledge gap has far-reaching implications, as the next generation of construction professionals may lack industry-relevant BIM competencies to collaborate with clients, design teams, and numerous stakeholders involved in the planning and construction phases from works.

Challenges in implementing BIM. Barriers to implementing BIM are often discussed in the context of the “3 x 3 matrix” developed by Bohms and Drogemuller and later expanded by Karak and Munkvold. Despite the major technological advances in BIM, these critical challenges tend to remain the same. Despite the significant hype and investment in BIM, including its implementation in curricula associated with construction programs around the world, a chasm persists between academia and construction industry initiatives, with research skills in the area lacking in demand by professional practice. The gap is particularly noticeable in technical colleges.

3. Drones in Construction

FEI John Brown, a construction industry leader, estimates that the use of drones as a tool for inspections and data collection makes up nearly 90% of its work, which interestingly was not initially intended, but an anomaly in which job site superintendents captured video to share with project teams. Drones now capture data that is considered value-creating, and the goal of integrating digital data received from drones is focused on predictive analysis. As a result, drones are not only beneficial in management aspects, but the use of drones on construction sites was integrated to capture and deliver real-time monitoring reports, which provides safety benefits as it eliminates the need for personnel to risk being in the field or at high locations.

Referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft systems), drones have been utilized in a variety of construction management operations. Particularly in construction tasks that require a significant amount of resources to operate and high-risk activities, drones are able to replace the labor needed for that specific function. For instance, drones are able to provide status reports, 3-D site maps, building information models (BIM), and aerial photography. This research analyzes the benefits drones have in safety, project efficiency, and cost reduction. They further elaborate on the advancements, barriers, and trajectory for future research of drones in the construction industry.

3.1 Applications of Drones in Construction

The introduction of drone technologies is also changing the type of skilled workers required in construction projects. This is supported by several empirical studies. In a recent investigation conducted in commercial construction firms in Tennessee, drone operators were not only required to be competent in operating drones but were also expected to have knowledge of planning and managing the missions of other production resources. Similarly, a study of employment profiles in major construction firms in the UK showed that “drone operators” are increasingly in demand. Collectively, these studies point to the growing awareness of construction sector recruiters of an emerging job role at the intersection of construction management and technology. In addition to understanding how the adoption of drones contributes to the quality of construction training graduates, this body of studies also underscores the need for the development of high-level construction industry and recruitment skills as part of construction education curriculum development initiatives.

Key applications of drones to support the construction industry include aerial surveying, earthworks, inspection work, health and safety monitoring of sites, and providing accurate images and measurements of as-built conditions, as well as architectural and infrastructure surveys. In addition, drones are being explored for use in 3D mapping, laser scanning, and indoor navigation in construction environments. Key barriers to the wider adoption of drones in construction projects include a lack of data processing capabilities, insufficient accuracy, potential safety implications, as well as privacy concerns. Currently, the operational use of drones in the construction sector is frequently limited to relief situations and potentially dangerous sites still pending completion.

3.2 Advantages of Drone Technology

They are useful in the construction of highways, railway lines, bridges, ports, and in large construction projects in the execution of embankments. Drones are capable of inspecting hard-to-reach construction areas as well as monitoring construction site safety to inspect ground conditions. They are not only useful for legal compliance but can streamline asset management and project control, as well. The use of drones on construction sites and infrastructure inspection applications is increasing as technology continues to improve, including new cameras, sensors, AI analysis tools, and communication pathways. Drones can be used to easily cover designated fly zones and capture data at the push of a button. Drones have been used successfully in emergency and disaster management. For rescue missions, searching for disasters by air is considerably more practical than conducting ground surveys.

Benefits of drone technology. Although drones have been used in construction for about a decade, and their usefulness is expanding, the full potential remains unrealized. Lack of adequate regulations and legal limitations have historically been a barrier to widespread drone use in the United States, particularly in construction, but that is changing. In 2016, Part 107 of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations allowed for commercial use of small drones with some limitations, and additional changes are anticipated. Both construction companies and clients see the advantages of incorporating drones, such as cost savings, improved project safety, and increased efficiency. These features are particularly attractive in surveying, site inspection, and safety inspection. Standard surveying methods take much longer and require more resources than surveying accomplished with drones, and drones can be used to generate surveys without direct labor during work hours.

4. Augmented Reality in Construction

AR has also gained interest in the architecture, engineering, and general contractor sectors for marketing and sales purposes. AR applications can present clients with 3D models brought to life so they can both visualize and experience the 3D models in a real-world context. This technological leap to AR visualization can make the difference when marketing large commercial, industrial, and institutional projects, providing clients with unique and eye-catching presentations. For instance, AR visualization has been used in architecture to communicate designs or in general contracting to view a completed project in its early construction phases. By using AR visualization in a 3D model, designers can project a building into the streetscape and give the clients an idea of how the completed building would likely look. Clients can then view accurate size perspective, the views from multiple vantage points, can provide the Time Saver, and is argued as the potential dispatch appearance in time for the presentation. By engaging with a 3D AR model, clients can get a sense of the building, which builds their confidence about the project and may be more likely to proceed with it.

Emerging technologies in construction and their implications for training. In construction, the recent surge in interest in AR focuses on the technology’s potential use at the construction site. In a real-world environment, AR can enhance the capabilities of workers, help keep them safe, improve job training, and facilitate hands-free instructions, which is particularly valuable when working at heights or in confined spaces. For example, Trimble, Hololens XR10, and others offer AR gear and apps intended for use in construction-related tasks such as layout, field measurements, and as-built inspections. By donning AR eyewear on the job, workers can see 3D models of the pipes, ducts, and wires that will be installed behind walls. This both eliminates the need for workers to boot up a computer, tablet, or virtual reality headset to view 3D models and reduces the number of mistakes that slow down construction projects. Additionally, workers’ orientation can be enhanced on the job site presented directly on the background of the job site or any construction project. EH&S apps can demonstrate safety measures; maintenance apps can guide workers through routine equipment maintenance, and service apps can walk technicians through a step-by-step process. Another benefit of AR technology in the construction industry, as well as in education and training, is enhancing job skills and reducing errors.

4.1 Utilizing Augmented Reality for Design Visualization

In many construction projects, these “trusted” workers are often the foreman and his assistant. For less experienced installers or less experienced foreman and/or his assistants, all rely upon either paper-based representations of the accurate survey-grade site plan or a few 3D-AIMM systems, such as ED-Ts or GC-Ts, that many do not use, which they had to refer to instead. For most metal stud installers, who are considered relatively unskilled labor, among other less skilled craft workers/semi-skilled helpers, reading and interpreting both paper plans or an occasional 3D-AIMM system takes more time, and potential mistakes are typical. To help mitigate these concerns, the use of Enhanced Computer-Aided Design, 3D Imaging, Construction/Business Information Modeling, Augmented and Immersive Visualization Mechanical Engineering Technology, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Real-Time Training and Training Tools (ED-Ts; EBIM; VBIM; 4D and 5D LED; VMSD; GEMS, etc.), which can be an aid/used by all levels of stakeholders, such as designers, students, and construction installers/foreman, is being implemented.

Emerging technologies in construction and their implications for training. The growth of the use of digital design tools and BIM/D tools, along with the now widespread use of geospatial positioning services in many construction projects, have the potential to significantly advance the efficacious and eco-friendly construction of buildings and infrastructure. However, from the beginning, the process by which data collected with survey-grade instruments in design could be effectively utilized by those actually constructing buildings and infrastructure has been uneven, at best. This concern remains an issue today. For example, to keep construction workers/installers from “misusing” survey-grade drawings/data that can, and often does, frequently change due to fit-up or a design change, only a couple members of the team are typically trusted with the information.

4.2 Enhancing Construction Safety with Augmented Reality

The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires companies to create a COVID-19 preparedness and response plan. The general elements of the response plan include specific protections and training in policies, engineering and work practice controls, infection control for masks, personal protective equipment, and cloth face coverings, and the use of a screening process. Significantly, there are channels for reporting illness and access to medical records. The work safety requirements will align with Construction Technology programs with a focus on construction skills and safety. The services of AR will include providing trainees with simulated, collaborative, and interactive content. AR can also be used to broadcast incidents and aid in training exercises for hazard identification in real-life scenarios. Therefore, in many ways, learning will be more effective because trainees are in the actual environment. Additionally, some scholars argue that AR will be an integral part of future AEC collaboration systems. These collaboration systems are more pandemic-resistant, with COVID-19 safety standards, because of the need for different stakeholders to monitor on-site tasks. Answering the call for the implementation of AR, some construction educators and stakeholders are also encouraged to explore the training and educational effectiveness of AR in construction.

Recent technological advances have enabled the effective application of augmented reality (AR) in design and construction. This involves the use of computer-generated information superimposed on the physical environment. Field workers can use AR-rich environments to obtain information about their next work tasks, find names of spaces, look at models of as-built elements, compare on-site installations against design models, and access assembly information. Such use not only increases construction safety by requiring workers to be constantly aware of their surroundings, but also enhances productivity and quality. Researchers also argue that AR will be part of future AEC collaboration systems, and the architectural community has nominated it as one of the technologies requiring further research. The design-build and collaborative nature of typical infrastructure projects can benefit from the use of AR systems because of the need for different stakeholders to monitor on-site tasks. The OSHA’s work safety legislation has new training requirements for the construction industry that can be fulfilled with the implementation of AR.

5. Training Implications of Emerging Technologies

Some, particularly the most sophisticated and self-learning artificial intelligence solutions, are seen as complementary to management and professional work, at least in the short run. The result is that artificial intelligence solutions can undertake routine tasks that are easily digitizable, leading professionals and managers to focus on more complex tasks, thus boosting productivity. Will the benefits of such technological change outweigh its potential costs? Securing the best outcomes will depend largely on the collaboration between different actors in the policy space and a higher readiness to adapt to and engage with new technologies, particularly the workforce. When it comes to management and professional work, there is already evidence of growing progress. Managerial decisions regarding workflows and workspaces are now shaped more than ever by the availability of technology platforms with advanced analytical capabilities that can investigate career paths and the decisions taken in view of rehabilitation and project lifecycle. In other words, platform technologies have shifted recruitment, selecting and fermenting to the provision of fact-based interventions that can be more productive. This represents a major shift in career management overcoming the risk that choices and decisions are overly social and selective, if not intuitive—and possibly inadvertently biased.

Training Implications of Emerging Technologies: The pace of change in the field of construction technology is due in part to the convergence of different fields of technology, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. The convergence of these technologies will influence the way we work and how that work is valued. In construction, the potential of these technologies will be ever more pronounced and, whether we are ready for it or not, these technologies will significantly influence the future of construction careers. The growth will be exponential – it is not just a question of the gradual entry of new technologies into the sector but rather how we will handle the outcome of that innovation, such as robotics, which can offer businesses and individuals greater leverage and freedom. The upshot is that a number of these emergent technologies will lead to disruption, particularly in management processes and in various business models.

5.1 Incorporating BIM in Construction Training Programs

Another important concern identified is the lack of understanding and adequate use of BIM standards. Thus, different education programs are recommended to ensure the acquisition of various other important non-technical BIM knowledge, such as knowledge about BIM implementation strategies, the inclusion of BIM in project delivery processes, and developing employer skills in relation to BIM. The education programs being developed should focus on influencing the perceptions and attitudes of practitioners related to BIM and also challenge current norms in education provision and professional accreditations. These will allow to engender culture shifts and provide necessary knowledge in support of BIM knowledge and information flow.

One of the most critical technologies is Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology. It has been recommended to include it in current curricula, as well as in continuous professional development programs for construction practitioners. However, the full integration of BIM in construction education and continuous academic development has been lagging. Different countries and regions have been determined to be responding inadequately to the call to enhancing their industry capabilities, as the industry requirements are not adequately reflected in the education sector and vice versa.

5.2 Training Construction Professionals to Operate Drones

A UAS is used in construction for various data collection and analysis related functions such as damage assessment of bridges, buildings and pavements under the direction of a registered professional engineer, subsurface and geological investigations of structures within or underlying coastal waters, archival photo documentation, construction surveying, or future construction operations of engineering, recruiting or training. As drones are an emerging technology with potential applications in collaboration, data collection and analytics, they are a preferred tool for educational technology usage. However, the practical challenges of using drones are apparent across learning situations. Since several applications enhance learning, cooperative and service-based learning approaches can be adapted by diverse pedagogies involving drones. For instance, the preferred methods include the involvement of case examples, reality-based simulations, and problem-based learning based on case development involving drones.

Drones have become increasingly popular in the construction industry and are currently used to obtain data on several fronts, including site surveys, inspections, monitoring and management of the construction site, installation of the automated construction layout, among others. They are directly linked to the stages prior to and after the construction of any project or property, and since the accuracy of the data is important, they consume a considerable amount of time for up-skilling construction professionals. Drones are used in construction for various purposes, which include, but are not limited to, progressing a project while the development operations are scheduled to take place on a different day, providing a holistic view of a particular construction site or space, and monitoring key areas of interest, in addition to other purposes which directly pertain to remote sensing technologies and geospatial information-based applications.

5.3 Integrating Augmented Reality into Construction Training

The potential for augmented reality in construction has mostly been explored for design, building information modeling, and sustainability analysis applications—work phases performed by specialists in the construction workforce. Like VR, AR does not yet have a standardized procedure for use in construction projects and as a result is evaluated on its potential for a given task, such as its use for safety analysis. The range of employee profiles for VR is further magnified in the case of AR because AR necessitates the introduction of a wearable device which for many specialist employees is a visual obstruction. The current focus on its enterprise applications may eventually lead to AR designing-focused roles but construction applications are still relatively undeveloped. In the future, AR may permeate all work phases, to account for real-time data including task sequencing, quality management, progress status verification, safety monitoring, interaction with drones and robots with near-photo-realistic spatial interaction. Further research is however essential before AR devices can be routinely deployed on construction sites, and it may necessitate a transformation of the organizational structure and the roles in construction projects.

The second in a three-part series on construction technologies concludes with augmented reality. Augmented reality technologies are gaining momentum. Many construction companies are beginning to use augmented reality technology to train employees, estimate tasks, and virtually inspect the construction site. The emergence of Google Glass put the limelight on the potential of augmented reality in the construction industry, and companies including DAQRI, Idealens, and Autodesk have all developed AR systems targeting the construction and design industry. Microsoft, with the Hololens, offers a design-focused AR software option.

6. Future Trends and Innovations in Construction Technology

Many of these predictions are already visible as innovative applications in international construction practice or becoming part of or associated with construction technologies, such as the recently available Google Glass technology, providing, in real-time, augmented reality (AR) support for structural assembly tasks. Table 2 summarizes possible future trends, innovations, and the options to adopt innovation at a construction firm level that are commonly reported in the literature. The source for each trend or adoption strategy is mentioned in brackets. The listed options to adopt innovation at a firm level involve the integration of the technological leap within the complete set of technology functions, from technology transfer to commercialization. Technology transfer encourages the spin-off of new firms and may include patents and policies to protect know-how or critical resources, such as human resources. Discussion concerning the transfer of knowledge from academia to industry led to the setup of the Spin-off University. The patent office has also recently been redefined to recognize and support young researchers or inventors.

Emerging technologies in construction and their implications for training: 6. Future trends and innovations in construction technology: 6.1 General remarks. Construction, like all technologies and research disciplines, faces the challenge of integrating future trends and potential for innovation. Gul and Menashi predicted in 2008 that the most significant advances and trends in construction technology will focus on (1) increasing digitalization, which may include the use of RFID tags, establishing paperless building sites, Building Information Models (BIMs), augmented reality for training construction professionals, and the use of web marketing and branding; (2) embedded sensors that have potential applications in monitoring, diagnosis, and prediction in construction; (3) offsite manufacturing, including off-site fabrication of walls, floors, and other building structure components. Even the construction of self-assembling, self-repairable, and self-maintaining buildings is predicted in the long term as a fourth advance in construction. (5) Robotics and its fusion with other technologies, such as BIM and GIS, and supporting communication and cooperation technologies are potential technological breakthroughs in construction.

6.1 Internet of Things (IoT) in Construction

In recent times, the application of technology in construction quality management has been transforming the construction industry. The Internet of Things benefits the construction industry through Quality Mediation Frameworks. Nanotechnology is used in the construction industry at the nanoscale (i.e., 10−9 m). The addition of certain nanomaterials to the construction material might enhance its properties, such as strength, durability, self-cleaning properties, and fire resistance. The biodegradable construction materials encapsulated with refreshing micro-capsules respond to environmental stimuli or mechanical stimuli, releasing cooling agents. The findings of this study were also validated from the findings discussed in literature. Finally, the study findings were analyzed. This study underscores the role played by “Emerging Technologies-developing smarter city logistics solutions” in terms of performance. They could circumvent certification, regulation, and risky investments.

As with other sectors, the construction industry has had to adapt to project management, partly because of COVID-19, but also because of globalization and associated economic competitiveness, and new customers and end-user perspectives (e.g., sustainability). In addition to such external factors, change has been influenced by its own characteristics and working practices. For example, construction is known for low productivity and high economic and environmental costs. To enhance product and process efficiency, new emerging technologies have been adopted within construction and identified as a key pathway to future business success. This chapter provides an overview of these emerging technologies and their implications for workforce development and training. Pen-and-paper data collection methods are another challenge resulting in incorrect data or high rates of error and/or inaccuracy. The need for sturdy instruments (i.e., a hardware system that people could wear or use on the construction site) and robust systems (i.e., software) has also been highlighted.

6.2 Robotics and Automation in the Construction Industry

The research into future conceivable applications of robots in the construction domain remains in the world of futuristic concepts and visions. In construction, the use of drones is found in areas such as land surveying and aerial photography, with the potential to expand in other areas of construction like surveying existing buildings, site progress monitoring, robot deployment, and even delivering products to unreachable construction locations. As a concept motivating discussions, the Aectual drives orientation and sets columns autonomously (ELEVATE), the Swiss Robotic Technology fits sharp conduit into a complex containment such as for nuclear power plants, and trace machines use drones to capture videos and images, completing inspection at high accuracy.

A transformative view is that the construction industry would evolve in the same way as manufacturing industries, where larger quantities of standardized products are being produced with high degrees of automation and monitoring processes. Many distinguished world-leading figures in the domain of construction suggest lessons from car manufacturing for the transformation of the construction industry, of course, with some adaptations taking into account the peculiarities of the current working practices in construction. The automotive industry has made significant advances in using robotics. In construction, less than one percent of jobs in developed countries are performed by robots, mostly in industries other than construction. Self-learning robots and flexible fabrication with robots could trigger evolution.

6.3 Artificial Intelligence in Construction Planning and Management

Delays in activities are the main reasons for failures in the accomplishment of structural works. The absence of a definitive real solution in the construction process and the pretense of accomplishing the deadline, any solution of acceleration or optimal planning refers to the tools that have been built based on practical experience and do not take into account the arisen uncertainty in the activities, the evolution in the production capacities, both of the executed work and the ones of the actors involved in the process (the building operators, the providers). These situations lead to delays in the accomplishment of activities. The time becomes a specific dependence on the average uncertainty in the activity duration, taking into account the error of the expected duration that has been assigned to the work operator. The situation worsens when delays accumulate starting with small activities and continuing with the following activities that cannot start. Based on the uncertainty that appears in the process, the time of accomplishment of activities becomes a specific dependence on the stochastic error of the operators. The specificity of these cases and the synchronization of actors, that cannot be achieved momentarily by the specific company, led to the appearance of an uncertainty that becomes stronger in the accomplishment of activities.

On the one hand, traditional methods of project management are based on heuristic principles. Delays and costs can be forecasted based on personal experience, including delays in purchasing low-quality materials with required characteristics.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being applied to the construction industry for a number of applications in the critical path method (CPM) for scheduling, project planning, and control systems. Potentially beneficial for simulation-based scheduling, rule-based expert systems, genetic algorithms, neural networks, fuzzy logic, simulation systems are being applied to construction engineering and computer-assisted construction management.

6.3. Artificial Intelligence in Construction Planning and Management.

7. Conclusion

Emerging and yet to emerge technologies are making significant inroads into construction practice, potentially reshaping the building environment. The industry’s current regime of task skill and technology training – today’s preferred outcome – cannot adequately support tomorrow’s construction integration outcomes. Validating knowledge and performance improvements have generally been carried out on construction sites. Site processes have been carried out with materials resulting in buildings and infrastructure. As knowledge discovery has decreased the need for real-world interaction and precision memorization, it is critical to develop an inclusive domain of knowledge which may support the teaching of affective and effective skill acquisition practices. In doing so, the establishment (or redevelopment) of observational skills related to the knowledge within the discipline increases. Backwards planning the training process (and in a broader understanding backwards planning can be fit for the whole education) Able to construct or have constructed – reasonably accurate – mental schema of the learning process.

In this work, we have attempted to explore the relationship between two contemporary issues – construction’s embrace of virtual and augmented reality technologies and the limitations of its current regime of task training. While having evolved through time and practice, we contend the traditional construction training approach based on “seeing-imitating-performing” can no longer keep pace with the rapid technological shifts occurring within the industry. To illustrate this disconnect, we present three promising applications of virtual and augmented reality technologies with the potential to revolutionize specific training paradigms – virtually and haptically controlled robotics for advanced welding, digital and holographic craftsmanship, and synchronized augmented virtual experiences for construction site personnel. Additionally, we suggest how such changes may complicate knowledge and performance assessment in the construction domain. Finally, we offer a loosely connected list of desirable skills, abilities, and attributes construction should consider in those recruited to participate in the performance of construction tasks and activities in a virtualizing world.