CPCS A97 Excavator 360 Below 10 Tonnes (Lifting Operations Only) Course

1. Introduction

This course is designed to provide novice and intermediate operators with sufficient knowledge and skills to operate the excavator and to prepare them for CPCS assessment. This is a novice to intermediate level course which provides an introduction to a range of excavator skills. It is aimed at operators with little or no experience of operating an excavator. It is also suitable for those experienced operators who have received no formal training and who simply wish to brush up on their skills in order to prepare for a CPCS assessment. The CPCS assessment for Excavator 360 below 10 tonnes will consist of a Theory Test and a Practical Test. You must have a Health, Safety and Environment Test current and valid within the last 2 years. This will exempt you from the CPCS technical test which is a combined touch screen test taken at CITB approved centres. If you do not have a current, valid Health, Safety and Environment Test, you will need to take the CPCS technical test which consists of a touch screen Theory Test and a Verbal Practical Test.

1.1. Course Overview

At the end of the course, the successful delegate will receive a Red CPCS Trained Operator Card. This will be in addition to any card they may gain through the achievement of a VRQ/NVQ. The CPCS Red card is widely recognized within the industry as a vital achievement towards gaining professional competence. This is a 2-day theory and practical course for operators with some experience on a 360 machine. Welcome to the only CPCS Accredited Lifting Operations course!

For the novice operator, this course provides a comprehensive programme to achieve the above and also serves as a great stepping stone to the NVQ in Lifting Operations.

This course is designed to provide delegates with a thorough understanding of the dangers and risks associated with lifting operations. It aims to give practical experience in assessing whether a given lifting operation is within the capacity of the plant and understanding the stability limitations of the machine. Delegates will also gain an understanding of their role as a plant operator within the lift team and industry best practice.

1.2. Course Objectives

Each candidate will be expected to be able to prepare the machine for operations and to operate safely. 1. Prepare for work and shut down the BE360. 2. Understand the basic construction of the BE360 and the functions of the major components. 3. Locate and identify the major components of the machine and explain their functions. 4. Carry out minor adjustments and routine servicing procedures. 5. Position the machine for the work to be carried out. 6. Explain what materials make up the stability of the machine. 7. Comply with any civil engineering drawings. 8. Interpret the information given on the lift plan or task to be carried out. 9. Ensure the area is adequate and free from hazards. 10. Lift and carry loads from point to point. 11. Ensure the load is deposited at the required location and removed from the lifting accessory.

1.3. Target Audience

This excavator course is for a person who has just recently started using excavators at work or someone who has been working with excavators for a number of years but never received any formal instruction. This will also suit someone who is looking to renew their excavator ticket as proof of training. The qualification aims to enable candidates to achieve a 360 Excavator Lifting Operations tracked below 10 tons, through the acquisition of a mobile plant qualification. It also gives them a solid understanding of health and safety issues and conformity with statutory duties when lifting operations. This course is offered with a choice of tracked or wheeled 360 excavator. And if you require the A59A or A59B dumper unit, it can be taken as a combined course reducing training time. This course can be registered to the CSCS card scheme. Upon successful completion of the technical tests, the candidate is eligible to receive the CPCS Red trained operator card. You need to have some knowledge and understanding of the excavator operations industry to get through this course. In order to be a successful candidate in obtaining this qualification, it is advisable to attempt the CSCS Health and Safety test before booking your theory and practical tests.

2. Excavator Safety

Key points: • Safety precautions are of the utmost importance when operating or working around an excavator. Accidents and rollovers have occurred often in the past, resulting in both serious injury and death. • Excavators are extremely powerful and therefore potentially dangerous machines. Safety precautions are quite straightforward and mostly involve the use of the machine’s inherent features designed to create a safe operating environment. • Excavator operators should be trained and familiar with the specific machine being used. They should know what the machine’s limitations are and also its capabilities. With this knowledge, the operator will be in a better position to avoid or react to a dangerous situation. • Assessment of the work site should be carried out to identify potential hazards to the machine and personnel. Uneven or soft ground conditions can cause machines to roll over, so it is important to check the stability of the ground. Overhead obstacles can pose a danger to the machine and its operator, so they should be identified in order to determine adequate clearance for safe operation. Identification of underground services is also an important consideration. An uncontrolled release of energy is a common cause of serious injury to machine operators. This can be caused by machines striking into buried pipes or cables. • Before beginning work, the operator should always conduct a pre-operational machine and system check. If any faults are found, they should first be reported to the site supervisor or mechanic, and then the machine should be taken out of service until the problem has been corrected.

2.1. Safety Precautions

The area around the machine and the environment it is operating in must be analyzed to see if it is safe to operate the machine. The people and personnel should be kept well away from the machine, and the area should be sectioned off with barriers and signs. This will prevent any harm coming to the people and prevent damage being done to the area around the machine. Finally, the environment and the weather conditions must be suitable for the machine. Unsuitable conditions such as rain can cause slippery or muddy ground where the machine is at risk of sliding or getting stuck.

To prevent harm from coming to people and the environment around the excavator, safety precautions must be taken into account. This must be done by the operator and any other personnel involved in the job. This may require specific training for the operator and other personnel. The training may involve a possible course about excavator operation or it may include a manufacturer’s training operator’s manual for the specific type of machine. All personnel operating the machine must be competent in doing so.

The following are the various problems that can occur in an excavator that can cause harm to the people and the operator in the environment they are working in. Any mechanical issue can cause the damage due to the materials or accidents involving the movement of the machine. An unsecured load can cause the load to fall from the machine causing damage to anything in its path and potentially causing harm to people. Many other problems can occur with the excavator including collisions, uncontrolled movement, unexpected tool activation, and system failures. These problems that can occur with the excavator can cause harm to the people and the operator in the environment they are working in. Finally, the environment and people around the machine are at a high risk of being harmed due to the massive destructive power of the machine. This can be caused by anything above and it can also cause harm to the machine itself.

2.2. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

The excavator is known as a versatile machine as it can be used for many different jobs. No one PPE can provide adequate protection for all harmful conditions. However, the greatest risk to the operator is from the machine overturning. Statistics indicate that the overturning of machines is a common cause of operator fatalities in the UK. While the majority of these are on larger machines, the risk is still present on smaller models and can sometimes result in fatal injury. (For information on ROPS/FOPS, please refer to Excavator Safety 1). Any PPE that minimizes the risk of overturning is preferred. For this reason, the current UK legislation under the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 states that it is a legal requirement for the employer to provide PPE without charging the employee. Because of this, there is now a wide range of safety helmets available that are specifically designed for protection against the risk of overturning of machines.

There are a number of issues relating to the safety of operators who use an excavator. These issues are wide and varied due to the different uses of the machine. Most excavators are used for many different applications than the lifting operation only regime they were originally tested under. In some cases, this can lead the operators into using the machine in an unsafe way. All operators should always ensure that they use the machine within its limitations and take into consideration the attached work equipment. When using an attachment, the operator should refer to the lifting capacity of it and carry out the lifting operation in accordance with the lifting standard. This is a specific requirement for the lifting operations only endorsement and is a legal requirement under the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER).

2.3. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Hazard can be defined as anything with the potential to cause harm and ability to do so. A risk is the likelihood that the harm from a particular hazard, or combination of hazards, have the potential to be realized. The risk is determined by considering the likelihood or probability of the harm occurring and the severity of the harm. In risk assessment, you must think about what might cause harm to people and decide whether you are taking reasonable steps to prevent harm. You might also decide that there is a degree of risk you can accept, or that there are no satisfactory precautions and in such cases you should identify what the major risk is and how you can reduce the risk. Hazard identification and risk assessment should be an ongoing process because as work progresses conditions and the environment can change, resulting in new hazards or changes to the severity of existing hazards. Before lifting operations are carried out, it is essential that the lifting operations are planned properly. Planning should take into account the hazards associated with the equipment and the relevant work environment. Around one third of the major injuries reported each year, which include fractures, dislocations, and lacerations, result from manual handling accidents. These injuries can have major implications for employees and can also be very costly for employers in terms of compensation claims and lost days working. Similar types of injuries can also occur during lifting operations using lifting equipment such as cranes and hoists. An estimated 17% of these accidents result in more than 3 days’ absence from work, whilst some are major injuries and result in permanent disability. Most of these accidents are preventable. A well-planned lifting operation can eliminate or reduce the risks, ensuring the job is done safely and efficiently. Planning the lifting operation involves 5 steps: Step 1: Define the lift Step 2: Assess the risks and take precautions Step 3: Choose the right equipment and accessories Step 4: Carry out the lifting operation Step 5: Review the lift. These steps represent a basic approach to the management of lifting operations in any environment. Failure to plan the lifting operation has been a causal factor in many accidents throughout the development and use of lifting equipment. Successful completion of lifting operations involves a team effort with coordination between many people, from designers and managers to the people actually doing the lifting and carrying. If you are an employer or self-employed person providing lifting equipment for use at work, or you have control of the use of lifting equipment, you must make sure the lift has been properly planned, supervised by a competent person, and carried out in a safe manner. This will involve coordinating with others involved in the job and may require the use of a written scheme of work.

2.4. Emergency Procedures

If an operative is working on their own, it is advisable for them to carry a mobile phone or have a means of calling for help. Before starting work, the operative should ensure that access to the workplace is possible for an ambulance. If an incident occurs during the course of work, the operative should: – Stay calm and do whatever they can to prevent further damage or danger. – Assess the extent of the injury and act accordingly. – First aid should only be administered by a competent person. If unsure, don’t do it. – The injured person should not be moved or be allowed to move unless there is a risk of further injury. – The emergency services should be called as soon as possible by the most effective means available. – At the scene of the accident, the emergency services should be met by either the injured person or a person familiar with the nature of the incident and site, who can then guide them to the scene.

3. Excavator Operations

An excavator is a self-propelled heavy-duty machine used by construction companies globally. It is a versatile piece of machinery that has many uses in industry, from material handling and trenching to tunneling and truck loading. The CPCS 360 excavator below 10 tonnes A59 course, your instructor will take your operatives through this course which is designed to give your own experienced excavator drivers the ability to maneuver and drive in confined areas, carry out excavations to the sides of the tracks as well as pick and place on lorries in a safe and productive manner. This will be both in a construction or road/rail setting. When using a 360 excavator, there are a number of major advantages and disadvantages that depend on the site location and scale of work being carried out. Benefits will have an all-round smooth operation making it drastically more efficient and safe. This is mostly due to the multiple uses for the machine compared to excavators with backhoe attachments. An excavator has greater digging depths and unparalleled dozer work making it efficient on large-scale excavation and placement jobs. The many attachments for the machine make it suitable for various industries. The machine is easy to learn and quick to set up. As a result of these combined factors, excavators are something that are used by operators in many industries and on many sites for long periods of time.

3.1. Excavator Controls and Functions

The functions of the controls on all plant machinery are similar. Most functions are operated by hydraulic controls and these must be used in the correct manner for the work to be carried out efficiently. The direction and flow of the hydraulic oil is controlled by the movement of the levers or joysticks. These will be in the form of either 1 or 2 mechanical levers, 2 or 4 electrical pulse width controlled joysticks. (It must be noted that it is vital to check with the operations and endorsements for the exact configurations that will be operated during the technical test). The learner must know the type of controls on the machine being tested and identify the functions of each button, lever, and pedal. Once the machine is started and hydraulic systems are under pressure, the movements of these controls will cause the machine to carry out various functions which can be harmful and dangerous unless the learner has an understanding of each control and its effect on the machine. Effects of control functions must be learned off by heart and will become part of the essential knowledge when operating any item of plant machinery. When using CPCS (RT) test, movements can also be tested during exercises and operations.

3.2. Excavator Stability and Load Capacity

It is important to note that this is for guidance only. For certification to prove competence in the use of excavators for lifting, it is advised to attend a ‘lifter’s course’ which is governed by the National Plant Operators Registration Scheme (NPORS) and is the only valid certification within the UK for excavator lift operations.

The machine will be given a rating for load lifting, given in kilograms. This will be the maximum load that can be lifted when using the excavator’s full reach. It is crucial that the machine has adequate ballast when lifting. This includes counterweights and correct track tension. This will maintain machine stability and reduce track slippage.

((horizontal distance x 1050) + load weight) ÷ vertical distance = safe working load in kg

Load Capacity The use of an excavator to lift is subject to strict regulations. To calculate if a machine is safe to lift a given load, the following formula can be used:

5. Impact loading – this occurs when the force of the load being lifted is too great, or the load is dropped in. This can cause a momentary increase in pressure and therefore damage to the machine or track slippage.

4. Ground type – an excavator can safely lift greater loads on hard, level ground. Soft ground and the depression of the tracks will reduce stability and therefore safe working load.

3. Slope – when working on a slope, the excavator’s safe working load is greatly reduced, especially if working up or down the slope as this has a further effect on tilt.

2. Weight and reach – Excavators have a chart available from the manufacturer which will indicate maximum safe working loads at a given reach. Never exceed this.

1. The over-turning line – the line at which the excavator will over-turn dependent on weight and reach. This area should be avoided at all times.

Stability The key to safe operation is to understand the stability conditions of the excavator and never work outside of them. There are five key stability conditions that must be taken into account when lifting with an excavator.

3.3. Lifting Techniques and Best Practices

Lifting operations are usually known as the most dangerous activity on any work site. Although an excavator is a versatile machine capable of performing many tasks, its most effective role is arguably that of lifting. The photos, and to ensure you understand the principles this module is set out under the following headings. When planning a lift, the first thing to check is the weight of the load. Always refer to the machine’s load chart to ensure the machine is capable of lifting the load. Remember, if the load cannot be weighed, get estimates and refer to the load chart. Requirements regarding lifting attachments can be found in the lifting operations section of the CPCS renewal test. The lifting plan should also ensure the area is suitable for lifting. Check the terrain is suitable, a risk assessment may need to be carried out. If unsure, take trial lifts and stop if conditions are unsafe. Mark out an area for any mobile plant and barricade to prevent entry of other site personnel. Discuss the lift with all personnel involved and ensure they are aware of their duties. A lift director should be appointed by the site manager to oversee lifting operations. This person should have good knowledge of lifting operations and be competent to direct a lift. Their duties include supervision of the lift and any signalers, ensuring all personnel are in safe positions, calling emergency services in the event of an accident, and ensuring a rescue plan is available for any personnel working in confined spaces. Ideal communication between the excavator operator and signaller is to use a two-way radio. If this is not possible, ensure hand signals are clear and both operator and signaller know the meaning of all signals.

3.4. Load Securement and Rigging

The successful securement of a load is greatly influenced by the attachment at the end of the excavator boom that will be utilized to lift the load. Quite often, bucket teeth have been designed to dig into the ground and to carry soil and sand-like materials. However, due to their shape, they can often do a sufficient job of securing a load. If possible, the bucket should be removed and replaced with the correct lifting attachment for the job at hand. This will provide a more secure lifting point and offer more control of both the attachment and the load. Step-on type excavators with a quick hitch can easily swap between attachments. It should always be checked that the attachment is secured properly before commencing a lift. This can be achieved by gently trying to remove the attachment by hand or applying slight force to the attachment in the direction in which it will be moved. Always refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for correct installation and removal of excavator attachments.

First impressions are lasting, particularly if they are good. The above statement is simple but holds great importance when securing a load. If the load is picked up correctly and secured properly, job well done. Securement of the load can vary from one lift to the next. It may simply require a fork to be inserted into the pallet so that it can be moved a short distance or rigged with a chain and slung to turn a platform into a lift point so that it can be relocated. Regardless of how the load is secured, it should always be approached with the aim to carry out the lift in the safest and most efficient method possible.

3.5. Excavator Maintenance and Inspections

Excavators are essential to modern construction, but operating one safely is no simple task. The good news is that new machines are safer, easier to operate, and come with more operating information than ever before. Many operators are taking an excavator training course to improve their skills and career opportunities. This course covers the following subjects: controls and functions, operating from a platform, operating on slopes, and in trenching. Lifting operations are something that more and more excavator operators are becoming involved with. A whole new set of skills and knowledge is required for these operations. The next two modules are dedicated to the safe and efficient operation of the excavator when lifting. This module on maintenance and inspections is added as many operators and companies do not have a clear understanding of the Health and Safety Executive legislation which requires the pre-use inspection and maintenance of all types of work equipment. This should be a valuable module for everyone and is beneficial in keeping the course fresh in candidates’ minds. Pre-use inspections are an important part of ensuring the safe operation of an attachment. If there are known faults or defects, then there is a risk that the attachment could fail and cause damage to property, injury, or death. Manufacturers of attachments will produce an operator’s manual which will contain information on the inspection and maintenance of the attachment. If there is no manual available, then contact the manufacturer as it is essential that you have this information. With knowledge of the attachment and inspection and maintenance procedures, you can then develop a maintenance schedule. This should detail the attachments that are to be inspected, the procedure for the inspection, what to look for, the frequency of inspection, and the records that are to be kept. The attachment can then be registered into the maintenance system. This could be as simple as writing the inspection schedule on a sheet of paper and storing it in a binder, or a more complex computer database. As previously mentioned, it is important that you keep records of the inspections that have taken place and of the repair or disposal of the attachment. This is evidence that you are complying with PUWER and LOLER regulations and is a defense to any claims made under the act.

4. Certification and Assessment

Experienced worker test For experienced plant operators who require a 1 or 2 day technical test to upgrade their Red Trained Operator Card to a Blue Competence Card. Delegates must have passed the CSCS Health and Safety Touch Screen Test within the last 2 years.

Written and practical assessments We provide guidance and revision on passing the CSCS Health and Safety test, however it is essential to read, revise and practice your test. Failure to pass this will result in unsuccessful completion of the course. Candidates will receive tuition and a copy of the Excavator handbook to assist with their learning for the theory test. This is an open book test with a pass mark of 75%.

Course completion requirements During these excavator training courses, candidates must demonstrate their understanding of the subject matter and their ability to apply it to the lifting operations in the workplace. Delegates will have to pass a CSCS health and safety touch screen test within 2 years of the course end date, or provide exemption if they have already passed this (call CPCS on 0844 815 7274 for exemption).

4.1. Course Completion Requirements

To achieve the unit, the candidate must: 1. Identify and explain the basic construction, purpose, and configurations of the machine. Explain the needs and responsibilities under the legislation, with particular reference to the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSWA), Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER), Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER), and other current regulations. 2. Have a thorough understanding of their machine’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) rating. Be able to use the Hand-Arm Vibration and the Whole Body Vibration calculators to assess and indicate the need for further processes to be completed. 3. Identify and comply with manufacturers’ specifications in accordance with the operator’s handbook, other types of information sources, and applicable lifting charts. This includes identification of the lifting points with an understanding of the machine markings. 4. Thoroughly identify a load to be lifted and prepare with a lifting plan. This includes the identification of hazards, working with others, and the area of operation. 5. Thoroughly identify and explain the slinging and lifting equipment. Use the correct lifting accessory, including the correct connection to the load and the accessory to the lifting implement.

4.2. Written and Practical Assessments

Assessment There are two routes available to gaining the Red trained operator card. Route One If the candidate is a serving plant operator and can provide evidence of 100+ operating hours logged with the CPCS category they are being tested on within the last 2 years, or 60+ operating hours logged with the CPCS category they are being tested on within the last 6 months, they may be eligible to undertake a CPCS technical test. Candidates must also pass the CSCS health and safety touch screen test within the last 2 years. Route Two If the candidate is a serving plant operator and can provide evidence of 100+ operating hours logged with the CPCS category they are being tested on within the last 2 years, or 60+ operating hours logged with the CPCS category they are being tested on within the last 6 months, they may be eligible to undertake a CPCS technical test. Candidates must also pass the CSCS health and safety touch screen test within the last 2 years. Red Card: The Red trained operator card is issued on the achievement of the CPCS technical test, and successful completion of the CSCS health and safety touch screen test, theory and practical assessments for the CPCS category being applied for. The red trained operator card is valid for 2 years, during which time the operator must achieve a NVQ or SVQ in plant operations at the appropriate level in order to upgrade to the Blue competent operator card for “any plant or machinery”.

4.3. Certification Process

A series of theory and practical tests must be completed to obtain the red trained operator card, which in turn entitles you to obtain your blue competent operator card. You can take these tests at any CPCS test centre or at your company’s premises if suitable test conditions can be provided. The theory tests must be taken within two years of the red card being issued. If the red card has expired, then the candidate must take the VQ (see below) again. The candidate will then receive his red trained operator card and the log book with the achievement recorded. He may also receive a VQ certificate. This will depend on whether he has met all the requirements of the VQ. Once the candidate has achieved VQ, he may upgrade to the blue competent operator card at any time, provided he has passed the CITB Health, Safety and Environment test within the last two years and achieved the necessary CPCS theory and practical test. The blue card is renewable every 5 years, providing the Health, Safety and Environment test has been passed within the last 2 years and the operator has maintained his competence and knowledge in the categories that he is certified in.