CPCS A62 Crane/Lifting Operations Supervisor Course

1. Course Overview

1.3. Course Objectives On completion of the course, the candidate will be able to define the duties and responsibilities of a lifting operations supervisor, understand the requirements of legislation with particular emphasis on LOLER, PUWER, HASAWA, RIDDOR, and be able to interpret and extract information from drawings and documentation. They will also be able to determine the lifting equipment, accessories, and lifting tackle suitable for a lifting operation, and have an understanding of the strength and stability requirements of the lifting equipment. They will be able to prepare a lifting plan, risk assessment, and method statement, and understand the importance of a pre-use inspection and thorough examination of lifting equipment.

1.2. Importance of Crane/Lifting Operations Supervision Supervision is a crucial element of any lifting operation. Supervisors not only have to ensure that lifting operations are carried out safely and in compliance with legislation and good practice, but also have to plan, coordinate, and monitor such operations.

1.1. Introduction to CPCS A62 Crane/Lifting Operations Supervisor Course A course exclusively designed for supervisors and potential supervisors, to enable them to attain a recognized competence standard in a supervisory capacity. This is a two-day course for experienced workers who are in, or about to take, a supervisory role in crane lifting operations.

1.1. Introduction to CPCS A62 Crane/Lifting Operations Supervisor Course

This course is designed to provide staff who have been appointed to supervise lifting operations with an understanding of the appointed duties and responsibilities of a lifting operations supervisor. The first day of the course is aimed at staff who have been appointed to carry out an Appointed Person role, or those who are aspiring to do so, and will provide them with the underpinning knowledge required to successfully plan lifting operations. The second day of the course is aimed at staff who are new to the lifting operations supervisor role, or those who have been appointed to a lifting supervisor role but have no formal qualifications in the role. This part of the course will provide them with the knowledge required to effectively supervise lifting operations, and should ensure that they are more competent in the role than someone who has taken the one day A61 course. There are 2 theory papers to be taken and passed on successful completion of this course; at the end of the first and second days of training. These papers consist of multiple-choice questions and should take no longer than ½ hour to complete. Papers are to be taken in a relaxed and unpressured environment.

1.2. Importance of Crane/Lifting Operations Supervision

This course is aimed at people who are currently doing the supervision role or experienced lifters who are wanting to step up into that role. It has been designed to make it a legal requirement that anyone doing the supervision role has a recognized qualification. This is in response to the fact that the Construction Plant Competence Scheme (CPCS) identifies lifting as a high-risk activity and has put lifting supervisors as a priority for the competence card scheme. This course covers an area where in recent years there have been no specific qualifications available for lifting supervision, and even now there is still little in the way of courses that are offering formal qualifications.

For us to properly understand the importance of supervision in the safe lifting and/or moving operation, we must first understand and appreciate why things go wrong. Accidents rarely result from a single event; they are more usually caused by a series of events happening in sequence, and this is almost always due to a failure in management/supervision. Often, it’s the simple things that escalate into major incidents, i.e. the failure to check ground conditions can lead to an overturned crane where damage to the load or plant can be caused by poor signaling. These kinds of things happening in any work environment can almost always be traced back to a failure in the way things were managed or overseen.

1.3. Course Objectives

This course is designed to provide the student with the knowledge and skills to enable him to undertake the role of a lifting operations supervisor. This role holds the responsibility for the control and supervision of lifting operations. Training for supervisors is a legal requirement under the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER). By the end of the course, the student will: 1. Understand the roles and responsibilities of the lifting operations supervisor. 2. Be familiar with the requirements for safe systems of work for lifting operations. 3. Be able to manage and ensure the safe movement of loads. 4. Be able to recognise and control hazardous situations. 5. Understand equipment and accessories for lifting. 6. Understand platform, slinging and signalling activities. 7. Understand the maintenance and thorough examination of lifting equipment.

2. Crane/Lifting Operations Safety

– Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) – Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) – Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 – Work at Height Regulations 2005 – Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 – Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 – Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

Crane and lifting operations are regulated by statute to ensure the health and safety of site personnel. It is essential that anyone involved in crane and lifting operations is aware of the regulations pertaining to their work activities. The regulations have been designed to eliminate or reduce the risk of injury to those working in the vicinity of lifting equipment, and those who are involved in the lifting operations themselves. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 provides a framework for managing health and safety in the workplace and is supported by various other regulations, the most significant to lifting operations being:

Understanding safety regulations and standards

2.1. Understanding Safety Regulations and Standards

This section deals primarily with the legal aspects of health and safety as it applies to crane operations. It is essential that lifting operations are carried out in a safe manner and it is the legal duty of everyone involved in the lifting operation to take reasonable measures to ensure the safety of themselves and others. Failure to act safely can have serious consequences, so the law is very clear on this issue. Under UK and EC law, there are a number of regulations and codes of practice that have a direct impact on lifting operations. These will be listed and explained in terms of their relevance to lifting operations. Also covered will be the issue of responsibilities. Every person has responsibilities, both to comply with the law and to act safely, and this includes design engineers and manufacturers. Any relevant safety bulletins will also be covered.

2.2. Identifying Potential Hazards in Crane/Lifting Operations

It is important to know what hazards may be encountered during lifting operations. A haphazard approach to lifting a load can lead to personal injury and load damage. It is crucial that the lifting operation is well planned, properly supervised, and carried out in a safe manner. It is also important to select the most suitable lifting equipment and a competent organization to carry out the work. This guidance provides information about the selection and safe use of lifting equipment and covers many of the hazards associated with lifting operations and how to avoid them. A large proportion of the guidance relates to lifting using cranes and other types of lifting equipment; however, the generic information provided is also relevant to lifting using other means such as forklift trucks. Before lifting any load, an effective risk assessment must be carried out considering all the factors which can affect the safety of the lifting operation. This will often require input from people with knowledge in areas such as health and safety, lifting equipment, load management, and the working environment. The risk assessment should consider methods of preventing risk and also the measures that will be undertaken in the event that the preventative measures failed. A well-planned risk assessment can prevent accidents and ensure that the lifting is done in the most effective and safe manner.

2.3. Implementing Safety Measures and Best Practices

The site and lifting operation have to be planned. A safe system of work is a proved way of doing a job which, if followed correctly, will always ensure the safety of workers. The first step in the process of planning and implementing a safe system of work is a combined knowledge and understanding of the job in hand, what needs to be done and how to do it. This should be easy where the work is repetitive and well proven. Often however, the work is of an exceptional nature, such as lifting a load which is near to the crane’s maximum capacity or working close to power lines and it is in these situations that the level of competence of those planning the lift and the lifting operation itself is most important. In these circumstances, those who are considered as competent persons should meet to plan, agree and document the safe system of work. A competent person in this context is someone with the necessary technical knowledge of the work and the equipment being used, they should be reliable and take responsibility for their own and others safety and ideally, have had experience of similar work and be able to identify what can go wrong. This includes crane supervisors, appointed persons and site managers. The safe system of work should identify how the lifting operation will be carried out and detail all health and safety precautions to be taken. If written down, it can be known as a method statement, which is highly important in lifting operations contract lift. Essentially, the method statement is a document of understanding between the different parties on-site about how the work is to be done. This is most important in a contractual lift operation, where one party is hiring another to take out the lift. This document should list the responsibilities of everyone involved in the lifting operation, from planning to supervisor and the crane operator. Step by step, it should guide the task to completion and list the necessary safety steps at every stage. Often, the method statement will use a risk assessment matrix to highlight the higher risk steps in the task, ensuring that extra care and safety provisions are taken at these stages. The method statement should refer to the lifting plan. This is a more technical document which should detail everything to do with the lift. From what type of lifting equipment is to be used and its condition, the weight and positioning of the load to the lift radius and crane configuration and setup. All of these factors are important and affect the stability of the lift. This document should be task specific and it may be necessary to complete a number of different lifting plans if there are various lifts of different nature, all the plans should be detailed clearly and should always consider health and safety first. Lifting plans and method statements are needed to complete a contract lift in a professional and safe manner. Bear in mind that verbal agreement can serve as a method statement or lifting plan but the safer method is always to record the details. All plans and statements should be kept for a period of time following the completion of the task so that the information can be reviewed in the event of a similar task being undertaken. The general guide for what is required can be found in the British Standards BS7121 – Safe Use of Cranes.

2.4. Emergency Procedures and Response

The goal of this part of the course is to influence the candidate to carry out a plan for emergency procedures and training in the practical aspects of dealing with them. This training should be integrated with other site emergency procedures, and the candidate should have an understanding of these procedures after consultation with the site management. The candidate should be able to locate and explain any site-specific or equipment emergency procedures for an on-site and off-site emergency. The candidate should then be able to explain and demonstrate the appropriate responses. An emergency can occur at any lift, often through inadequate preparation or planning. The supervisor and lifting operation personnel should be able to recognize and respond to an emergency in the quickest and safest way possible. This may involve having to remove the load from its current position to prevent further risk to personnel or equipment, performing first aid on an injured colleague, or having to plan a safe and rapid exit from the site. All emergency responses should be documented and evaluated to determine whether adequate planning and decision-making was made.

3. Crane/Lifting Operations Planning and Management

1. Preparing Lift Plans and Risk Assessments • Lift plans and risk assessments should be site specific and will consider the type of lifting operation to be undertaken and its surrounding environment. • Risk assessments will consider the risk to operators, personnel, and third parties; the feasibility of the lifting operation in relation to the cranes and all lifting equipment to be used. • Who has to be involved? It is the duty of the supervisor to involve all personnel involved in the lifting operation, from the crane operators and banksmen to the slingers and signallers. • Before the lifting operation takes place, a safety toolbox talk should be held with all personnel involved to discuss the lift plan and communicate the possible risks and considered methods of reducing the risks. • A good lift plan is easy to follow and sufficiently detailed. It may contain a method statement or step by step guide on how the lifting operation will take place. All personnel involved must fully understand the lift plan. • The supervisor must ensure that all lifting equipment specified in the lift plan has a valid inspection report and where a LOLER inspection is required, a report on the equipment has been issued (i.e. colour coding or tagging system). • During the lifting operation, the lift plan serves as a visual reference to the lifting operation. The supervisor must monitor carefully the progress and ensure that the operation is taking place according to plan and has the authority to stop the operation if necessary.

3.1. Preparing Lift Plans and Risk Assessments

An understanding of both the control measures and the lifting operation will allow for the safe completion of the operation. The candidate will be aware that the chances of assessment documentation being lost and people not understanding the operation are quite high if assessments are not held in the right places. This could result in unsafe operations being undertaken, hazards not being removed, and control measures being bypassed. A lift plan must be clear and easy to understand in order to avoid these situations.

Candidates are to identify lifts which are to be carried out by visiting pre-prepared simulation scenarios. This is to be undertaken after already producing a risk assessment and method statement for the scenario. From this, the level of risk and control measures should be identified and placed into the documentation.

The general lift information is to be sourced before completion of the lift plan template. This will identify the basic details of the operation, which will be used as a reference point for future plans.

– Information gathering – Site reconnaissance – Documentation – Identifying hazards and control measures – Producing the method statement

It is vital that a lift plan is produced which matches the requirements of the operation and the equipment needed. Preparation of the lift plan will go hand in hand with the risk assessment and method statement to ensure the safest way of completing the lifting operation. A62 candidates will understand that there are a few key stages in preparing a lift plan which will be included in the candidate notes. Activities include the following:

Within this process, a risk assessment involving a method statement is to be implemented. This process is to be used for all lifting operations. The risk assessment will identify the level of risk involved and set out the control measures to be followed. The method statement identifies the sequence of steps that the operation will follow. This is a written document and is designed around the lifting plan to ensure the safe execution of the operation. Both documents should be prepared by a competent person, and the person in charge of the lifting operation should use these documents to ensure the safe completion of the operation. Lifting equipment such as cranes have hazards, and without adequate risk assessment, control measures identified, and safe working procedures formalized (i.e., the lifting plan and method statement), there is a significant risk of serious incidents occurring.

A3. Crane/Lifting Operations Planning and Management 3.1 Preparing Lift Plans and Risk Assessments

3.2. Coordinating Crane/Lifting Operations with Stakeholders

This means ensuring that everyone involved in the lifting operation knows exactly what is expected of them, and each fully understands their respective roles, responsibilities, and safety considerations. To accomplish this, it is beneficial to hold a site meeting and, if possible, a practice run before the lifting operation takes place. During a meeting, comprehensive discussions should be held with all involved to ensure a common understanding of the planned work, the methods to be employed, and the identification of any associated risks. This presents an opportunity to address any worker concerns, an important part of ensuring participation and cooperation throughout the operation. By involving workers in the planning phase, the supervisor provides an atmosphere where workers feel able to contribute to the decision-making process, promoting a sense of ownership, responsibility, and teamwork. This process should make it easier to train workers with less experience, often subcontracted labor, on their involvement in the lifting operation. This is also an important time to cultivate a positive working relationship with the client, perhaps demonstrating the supervisor’s competence and professionalism in lifting operations management. Flexibility and effective communication with a positive and composed attitude are the keys to building a rapport and dealing with any possible last-minute changes to the lifting plan. During the site meeting, if held at the time of installation, there is an opportunity to involve the crane and/or machinery operators in the planning process, providing an excellent forum for communication between supervisors and operators on the coordination and implementation of lifting plans.

3.3. Managing Personnel and Resources

Managing personnel. The first priority when managing personnel involved in a lifting operation is to ensure that they are competent. Persons with no/little experience of lifting operations are unlikely to ensure that the operation is carried out safely. Each lifting operation should have a designated appointed person who will be in overall control of the operation. They should possess expert knowledge due to their extensive experience in planning lifting operations. All personnel involved should be made fully aware of their individual responsibilities for the safe execution of the work. This will normally involve some form of consultation where the lifting operation is discussed with the workforce to identify any hazards. A supervisor must then be appointed to oversee the lifting operation. This is a vital role as the supervisor takes overall responsibility for ensuring that the operation is carried out safely and successfully. He/she must have authorization and be deemed competent to stop the operation if he believes it is not safe. He/she will also ensure that supervision is provided for crane teams and maintenance staff who may be less experienced in their work.

A lifting operation is a challenging and potentially dangerous task that requires careful planning if it is to be carried out safely and efficiently. Before the crane is used to lift anything, the supervisor in charge of the operation must prepare a method statement – this is a document that goes into detail about how the work is to be carried out. The person in charge must also ensure that the crane is suitable for the task. These actions are required by law under the UK’s health and safety legislation. (source: LOLER and PUWER approved code of practice and guidance)

3.4. Monitoring and Evaluating Crane/Lifting Operations

When the crane/lifting operation is in progress, it is necessary for the supervisor to monitor and evaluate the operation to ensure the desired goals are being achieved safely and efficiently. The assessment should identify any deficiencies or deviations from the planned lift and the corrective action required. This will entail a basic level of supervision with regular visits by the supervisor to the lifting site. The extent and depth of the assessment will be dependent on the scale of the lifting operation. The supervisor may be able to assign a competent person to carry out the assessment for routine or lower risk lifting operations. Monitoring and assessing is best achieved by reference to the lift plan and the predetermined ‘safe system of work’. This method is the comparison of what is happening against what should be happening. This proactive approach will enable early identification of problems or deficiencies and allow prompt corrective action to be taken. An effective method of evaluation is the use of ‘toolbox talks’ involving the whole lifting team. This can be used to inform the workers of any problems identified, and the action required to resolve them. This type of open communication is a valuable management tool and will also serve to further educate the workforce in safe lifting practices.

4. Legal and Regulatory Compliance

The importance of documentation is a recurring theme understanding what needs to be recorded and kept, and practical examples of record-keeping forms are given throughout. As with any legislation, what is important is the enforcement and consequences of non-compliance. Who can be prosecuted and under what circumstances? What are the potential penalties? This unit is concluded with case studies which reinforce the learning by asking candidates to establish non-compliance and suggest possible remedial action.

Duty to manage lifting operations under LOLER and PUWER is often misunderstood. We specifically address what is meant by the ‘duty holder’ and the requirements for: safe planning and organization, the selection of correct equipment, and competence of people involved. This is applicable not just to those directly involved with lifting operations, but contractors who may hire lifting equipment or contract a lifting operation as it places duties on those hiring and contracting as well as the equipment user.

This unit goes well beyond merely listing health and safety legislation and regulations. It provides an understanding of how legislation is structured, how to find and understand information within it, and how to establish if it is relevant to your organization or task at hand. This helps to create a blueprint for the development of management systems and the policies and procedures needed to ensure that you work safely and in compliance with legislation. Understanding what is meant by ‘risk assessment’ and ‘reasonably practicable’ are important for supervisors who are often tasked with writing a method statement. Requirements for consultation with employees are an important part of managing safety and health, and this is broken down into the key steps outlined in the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations.

4.1. Understanding Relevant Legislation and Regulations

Relevant legislation is the term given to the laws made by government that are related to the requirements of a particular group or industry. Legislation is developed to control behavior and to implement policies that often reflect social values. The laws are passed by parliaments and are arranged in Acts, Regulations (also known as Statutory Instruments) or Orders in Council. Legislation affects the way industry operates and how people work. It affects the development of national standards and the qualification required by people who work in that industry. It can affect funding, the import and export of goods and services and the nature and level of penalties imposed for breaches of legislation. For all these reasons, it is important to know who does what to whom and why. For legislation to be implemented in a workplace, it must be adequately known so that it can be aptly applied or followed. This means training and understanding are required for legislation to be most effective in controlling behavior. Failure to comply with legislation may result in legal action. Understanding legislation and its implications takes time and often requires legal advice. Specific legal advice on the implications of legislation for lifting operations will seldom be readily available. Therefore, CIEH believes it is essential for lifting operation providers or planning services, contracting and providing training, and employees who carry out lifting operations, to have sufficient information on occupational safety and health legislation that applies to lifting operations, so that they are better able to identify and control hazards in lifting operations. CIEH aims to fulfill the legislation requirements for the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, MHSW Regulations, and PUWER Regulations through the development of training and application of training to activities listed above.

4.2. Compliance Requirements for Crane/Lifting Operations

It would not be possible to list all of the relevant legislation and regulations in this Study Guide. However, the following should be considered as a starting point. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and the general duties under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 will always apply to lifting operations. This means that an employer must take appropriate steps to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of his/her employees and also persons other than his employees who might be affected by his acts or omissions, including the provision and maintenance of a safe working environment and safe plant and systems of work. Similar duties will apply to self-employed persons. Compliance with these legal requirements will be judged by what is reasonably practicable in the particular circumstances. Schedule 1 of the 1999 Regulations refers specifically to risk assessment and control i.e. the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations are basically a set of rules for showing legal compliance with the 1974 Act. Membership of MSHA would certainly help in providing evidence of legal compliance, especially as instruction and training are also required to be assessed and reviewed. Other regulations which apply generally and in addition to the above duties would include provision and use of work equipment regulations PUWER, manual handling operations regulations, and lifting operations and lifting equipment regulations LOLER. Specific regulations may also exist particularly for work at certain types of site (e.g. quarries) or where certain types of goods are being lifted (e.g. airplanes).

The management and control of lifting operations is a very challenging and complicated business. It is also potentially very dangerous; an estimated 10-15% of all workplace accidents involve the movement of goods. It is therefore essential that the standards of management and control are high. In the first instance, this would involve strict adherence to all legal and regulatory requirements. Compliance with legislation is also increasingly being required by tendering authorities in both the public and private sectors. Failure to comply with legislation might also have serious legal consequences should an accident occur and be the subject of a formal investigation.

4.3. Documentation and Record-Keeping

The evidence that employees were nicely skilled and in a position is an crucial necessity. This can typically be established by using their competency/skills card, with an addition being the proper report of certification gained from a training company. All relevant certification, whether it be supervisor or operator role primarily based, have to be effortlessly retrievable and showable for any audit.

On a CPCS direction, and in truth within the realistic execution of raising operations, the time period file will encompass all papers, contracts, certs & exams (including LOLER thorough examination reviews) and additionally any tape, photograph, video or digital data.

4.3.1 Legitimate Responsibilities

The term “documentation and record-keeping” will hold numerous connotations for drive visitors. A few will think about the onerous onus located upon them by prevalent administrative and procedural courses. Others will carefully scrutinize the meaning and importance of right documentation of lifting operations.

4.4. Consequences of Non-Compliance

An employee who suffers injury or harm due to an employer’s failure to comply with health and safety duties, statutory or common law, has the right to claim damages in tort.

Also, a great deal of health and safety law is imported into fire safety and food safety regulation. Breaching these duties may lead to prosecution under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 and the Regulatory Reform (Sanitary and Hygiene) (Food Safety) 1999. This means that failure to comply with health and safety in the industries may have wider implications on health and safety in various other parts of the industry.

In addition to penalties under specific statutory provisions, failure to comply with health and safety law can lead to prosecution under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Section 33 of the 1974 Act provides for the offence of breaching health and safety duties imposed by other statutes and regulations. This is punishable in the Crown Court either way, where health and safety prosecutions are heard, with an unlimited fine and/or imprisonment for up to two years (or up to six months if heard in the magistrates’ court).

Some statutes give effect to health and safety provisions in other legislation, e.g., the Public Order Act 1936 and the Mines and Quarries Act 1954, which contain provisions on fencing. Therefore, their contributions to health and safety law are restricted to specific areas. Failure to comply with any provision of these statutes is a breach of statutory duty under the health and safety law, which is punished in the usual way.

A breach of statutory duty in health and safety law is the failure to comply with any of the requirements imposed upon duty holders by the statutes and regulations. The majority of health and safety legal provisions impose duties on employers and others to protect the health and safety of people, including their own employees, and members of the public. These provisions are designed to prevent accidents and ill health. A breach of statutory duty can have very serious consequences, particularly where it results in someone being killed or seriously injured. This is because many health and safety statutes carry heavy penalties including fines and/or imprisonment.