CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Course

1. Introduction

No doubt about it, completing CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Course will help you gain a better understanding of the ever-evolving industry. A good general understanding of current health and safety legislation as it applies to plant operators, a clearer view of the approved code of practice and guidance notes that affect plant operators. A21 Wheeled Loading Health and Safety responsibilities of both employers and employees are summarized, where an explanation is given of the general duty of care required to ensure the health and safety of persons affected by acts or omissions at work. Instructing on the need to ensure plant operator safety and training in the interests of health and safety requirements and the provision of work equipment and materials meeting the need of health and safety. Guidance is given with an understanding of production and correct use of the required PPE A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel plant (Personal Protective Equipment). The course carries on with an overview of accident prevention and the safety of others including non-operators and its common because when plant machinery is in operation maybe moving or lifting loads, other site workers may be working in close proximity to the working plant, this poses a specific risk to their health and safety. Explanation is given of the need for specific risk assessments for plant operations and all work with the Lump Hammer tool and or Machine Mounted Hydraulic Hammer breaker. Then we have a good set of training objectives provided and a full day of one-to-one theory and practical with our instructor trainers.

1.1. Course Overview

This course is aimed at people who have little or no experience of operating a wheeled loading shovel. Typical operators will be employed within the construction, agricultural, environmental, and waste recycling industries. Candidates gaining the CPCS A21 endorsement will hold a Red Trained Operator Card. The CPCS Red Trained Operator Card confirms a level of core skills, knowledge, and understanding that can be applied in the candidate’s chosen operating role. The scope of wheeled loading shovels in construction is extensive and therefore covers a large amount of applications and attachments. The CPCS A21 course reflects this in the length and emphasis on practical training and testing. This course can vary in length due to factors such as experience with the machine and complexity of work being undertaken. This will be assessed at the beginning of the course. New operators with no previous experience are advised to complete a course lasting a minimum of 4 days. If experienced operators are undertaking the same tasks but with different attachments, needing a simple familiarization session may only require 1-2 days. The aim of the CPCS wheeled loading shovel training course is to provide the candidate with the basic operational and core knowledge skills in order to enable them to undertake their duties safely and efficiently. Under current legislation, it is required that machine operators hold valid certification; this can be the requirement to have a Red CPCS Trained Operator Card to work on some sites to having to prove competency to operate. This course is designed to suit the novice candidate and/or experienced candidate who needs evidence of competency with a recognized certification. During the wheeled loading shovel training course, candidates will cover the following: theory training and basic knowledge understanding of the principles of the machine, accident prevention and risk assessment, machine controls and instruments, operating on inclines and undulating ground, and carrying out recovery operations.

1.2. Importance of CPCS A21 Certification

A21 Course Content – Measuring and Estimating. The CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Test. Theory test is 34 minutes long, requiring a 72% pass mark. The practical test is around 2 hours. This will be dependent on the experience and knowledge of the candidate, including the time between the written and practical tests. The CPCS technical test allows experienced plant operators to gain recognition for their achievements through a simple, yet rigorous assessment of their knowledge and operating ability. CPCS is beneficial to operators as they are able to gain access to worksites. Choose CPCS training because industry standards in plant operation are higher than traditional/other training. With the Red and Blue Trained Operator Card no longer being issued, those owning an NPORS Trained Operator Red Card are now being asked to also hold a CSCS card. CPCS is the equivalent to this and allows the Operator to gain a CSCS Health and Safety Awareness course qualification. There is no need to renew NPORS cards, therefore the CPCS A21 Operator Card is a long-term qualification. Step forward to the future and operate machines safely and to a high standard and quality with CPCS training. An ever-increasing number of sites will not allow plant equipment to be operated unless the operator has been certified as competent, therefore an A21 CPCS card is fast becoming a mandatory requirement.

The CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Course will provide you with skills and knowledge to enable you to operate the machine safely and efficiently. Evidence of attainment of the CPCS Technical Test enables those holding certification to obtain an entry on the CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Operator card. This provides hard evidence to employers and clients which proves the ability of the holder. The course includes classroom-based training to provide the core knowledge and understanding required and also practical training and assessment in a safe environment. This will enable the candidate to understand the potential hazards and know how to minimize them. The length of the course will depend on the experience and Forward Tipping Dumper knowledge of candidates. Novices require 5 days and 3-4 days are required for experienced operators. The course would be delivered to a maximum of 3 candidates.

2. Safety Procedures

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Policies should be in place stating what PPE is to be worn on site. This may vary but in general the following is a minimum requirement: – Hard hat – Safety boots – High visibility vest – Gloves – Safety glasses Certain jobs may require additional PPE such as ear defenders and face masks, make sure that you know what is required and wear it. Failure to wear PPE may result in you being asked to leave site, or in the case that it is a legal requirement that you may be liable for a fine if caught. It is there for your safety, in most cases PPE is designed to provide a last line of defence against serious injury, yet should not be used as an alternative to other safety procedures. Pre-Operational Checks Ensure that before using plant machinery for the first time you are fully trained to operate it, always check the operator’s manual for the specific machine to make sure that no additional checks are required. On some larger sites there may be a pre-printed defect book specific to each machine, make sure to check if there is one available and if so use it. When defects are recorded make sure to report them to the appropriate person and if the defect makes the machine unsafe to use then it should be taken out of service, usually indicated by an out of order tag and ideally it should be isolated or have the keys removed to prevent anyone attempting to use it until repairs have been made. Always ensure that any repairs are carried out by a competent person, if you are repairing your own machine then you are considered to be a competent person, if someone else is doing the repairs then they should be suitably qualified.

2.1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is the equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It includes items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear, and safety harnesses. PPE should be regarded as the last resort in providing protection and should only be used in this way after all other means of protection have been considered. In selecting the PPE, the user should ensure that: it is properly assessed before use to ensure it will provide effective protection; it is CE marked; it complies with the relevant regulations; it is the correct size and fit; it is suitable for the job and the conditions in which it will be used, and the risks involved have been properly assessed. The PPE will need to be properly maintained and stored, and its use will need to be monitored. You should be aware that the use of PPE may give a false sense of security and will only be effective when used in conjunction with safe systems of work and other control measures that it is intended to supplement.

2.2. Pre-Operational Checks

The next checks are on the steering, transmission, main frame, and loader arms. Here the operator is looking for any unusual noises or movement. Any problems here can be identified and possibly rectified early, saving time and expense in the future. The final checks prior to starting the engine are ensuring that any steps or handholds are clean and free from material and that the operator’s manual is stored safely in the cab. Steps and handholds can be very slippery, and it is important that they are clear to avoid any slips or falls. The manual should always be accessible to the operator.

These include checking the condition of the tyres, condition of the bucket, checking for any leaks, and that the brakes are fully operational. The tyres should all be of the same size and make and have no cuts or splits. The shovel should be free from damage and the brakes should hold the machine on a 1:10 gradient. These checks are essential for the safety and well-being of the operator and any other site personnel. A machine with defective brakes could be potentially dangerous as it may slip or continue to move when the operator does not intend it to.

2.3. Safe Operating Practices

Before starting the engine, inspect the wheel loader for applied brakes, bucket attachments positioned on the ground, tires with proper inflation and no leaks, fluid levels, and no damage. Thin, underinflated tires can cause stability problems. If the front attachment is a fork or other attachment that moves the load, engage the attachments leveler or float control if equipped. Always fasten the seat belt before operating the machine. The machine is equipped with a ROPS/FOPS all-enclosed cab. This is to prevent the operator from being thrown from the cab in the event of the machine overturning and protecting the operator from falling objects. Always use the seat belt at all times when operating or traveling with the machine. Adjust the seat to the operator’s preferred position and ensure the joystick controls are properly functioning. Always use the designed three points of contact when entering or exiting the cab. Keep the cab door and windows clean and free from mud. It is important to be able to see in all directions. If cleaning with water, be cautious not to allow water to enter the cab through the seals in the door and windows. Never hang items from the cab window.

3. Machine Components and Controls

Wheeled loading shovels have a very articulated steering system. When you turn the steering wheel so the front wheels of the machine start to turn, you can continue to turn the steering wheel in the same direction, which will cause the rear of the machine to follow the exact track of the front wheels. This type of steering system is very useful when shovels have to work in confined areas, and this is often the case on construction sites. The reason that it will be useful for you to understand this characteristic is that it will help you in certain loading and travel maneuvers where you can cause the rear of the machine to follow/track over where the front wheels have just been. This will aid machine stability and reduce marking up soft ground with the rear wheels in certain site conditions.

The term Wheeled Loading Shovel (WLS) covers a wide range of machinery that load material into or onto other types of machinery or transport. The basic design of most machines is similar, although there can be quite a bit of variation in size. It is worth spending some time becoming familiar with the features of the machine before you start to use it, and a walk around inspection before use is time well spent. It is also a good idea to spend some time in the operator’s seat experimenting with the various controls and working them, prior to starting work with the machine.

3.1. Understanding the Wheeled Loading Shovel

Wheeled Loading Shovels have good loading capabilities and mobility above other types of loading shovels due to the 4-wheel drive and high horsepower-to-machine weight ratio. They are commonly used in an aggregate production environment. Loading shovels are prevalent in sand/gravel quarries and often used to load with a technique of ‘dig and carry’; which is the smooth continuous loading and transferring of material to awaiting trucks at a stockpile point using the machine travel. This process requires skill and knowledge of machine capability and production needs. Carry out a task analysis to understand the process and expectations of the task. Sometimes a loading shovel may also need to load itself into a supporting role, manually handling a smaller lighter machine with an attachment into a confined location in the underground industry. Understanding the loading capabilities and wheel loader selection must conform to the weight and slope of incline and lift arm reach or height and is crucial to the safe and efficient completion of a task or material transfer.

The Wheeled Loading Shovel is designed with a parallel lift arm system, which will mainly be used with a general purpose rehandling bucket. However, as mentioned previously, the potential of these machines is versatile and variable according to the range of different attachments that can be used. These may include forks, jib and winch, high tipping buckets, dozer blades, and ground engaging tools, etc. – all of which have a different technique and safety precaution for successful use. The operations that can be carried out with a loading shovel include stockpiling, truck loading, material transfer to a secondary conveyor feeding a screen or crushing unit, over ground material transportation, and general push loading. Understanding the capability with these techniques, and the safe practices involved, is necessary for any operator. Wrong approach or poor practice can result in poor productivity and adverse effects on the machine components and work environment.

The Wheeled Loading Shovel is a very versatile machine and can carry out many tasks, but to do so efficiently it is essential to understand its capabilities. The modern loading shovel is an extremely sophisticated tool with a highly versatile potential. It can be said that this is a ‘multi tool’ on wheels.

3.2. Familiarizing with Machine Controls

Primary Controls: – Engine throttle – this is used to increase or decrease the revs of the engine. – Service brake – This is pedal operated and controls the braking system on the machine. This should, when applied fully, hold the machine in position or bring the machine to a complete stop. – Steering control – the majority of wheeled loading shovels will have a form of articulated steering. Movement of the levers in the direction the operator wishes to travel will engage steering. – Transmission control – this will put the machine into forward or reverse travel and generally is operated by a lever or automatic switch.

To familiarize a trainee with the movements and working operations of the wheeled loading shovel, it is essential that the operator candidate explains and demonstrates through operations the function and purpose of the primary and secondary controls. It is most important that the candidate is clear in their instruction and encourages questions to check trainee understanding of the controls.

4. Operating Techniques

Loading and unloading materials: It makes sense to start at the beginning! The loading shovel can be used for loading and stockpiling materials as diverse as earth, sand, rubble, refuse, etc. into or onto various types of vehicles, plant and equipment or into stockpiles. This is done in a range of industrial, construction, local authority, and service industries. When material is to be loaded into or onto something, the loading shovel depends on the task and how much area is accessible by the machine. Loading of light materials like sand or topsoil can be done using the full machine and bucket movement similar to that used in stockpiling (4.3.3), ensuring the bucket penetrates the material to its full depth then curls back, filling the bucket. Loading heavier materials such as concrete, or when there is little space or restricted access to the material, it may be more appropriate to push, scoop, or roll the material into a pile or windrow and then use the bucket to lift and load the material. Concrete can be loaded in lumps or rubble into a skip or grab lorry. The easiest way to do this is for the vehicle to reverse close to where the material is being stockpiled so it is below the elevation of the stockpile. The loading shovel can then load directly into the skip or lorry. If this is not possible, the material must be stockpiled at the same level as the vehicle or higher, in which case it may still be possible to load directly or alternatively it can be loaded into buckets or tipping bodies to be transported to the vehicle which is parked in a more accessible area. A more suitable method to move the material may be the use of forks (4.3.2). Loading and stockpiling into or onto something usually presents the loading shovel operator with restricted visibility and confined area of movement, making it a potentially hazardous task. High risk of collision with the vehicle or stockpile face and a risk of overturning when working on a stockpile are also factors to be taken into account. Similarly with stockpiling, there are safe and efficient methods of going about this operation.

4.1. Loading and Unloading Materials

Depending on what you are loading or unloading and where you are loading it from or the targeting area, will determine the best choice of bucket. For general loading, a sand bucket with straight edges can be used for good penetration and fill, then use a smooth edge bucket for finer materials so this will determine dry or damp sloppy materials. Step into the machine and make any adjustments to seat and mirror positions ensuring good all-round visibility. Fasten your seat belt and start the engine ensuring the park brake is engaged. During any loading or unloading procedures, it is always best to keep the engine running and carry out machine movements with low revs/diff lock on but always using functions slowly and precisely. When traveling with a loaded bucket, a closed load is always more desirable but sometimes down to the load or other external factors it is not always possible so more care has to be taken to prevent spillage. With effective load and travel positions preventing damage to any machine components should always be considered and then the same but opposite actions applied to unloading.

Loading and unloading materials on your wheeled loading shovel requires a good understanding of the forces involved and lots of practice. Unfortunately, inexperienced operators can pick up bad habits very quickly and then wonder why they have problems and turn to the machine or their employer. The guidance presented here will assist a new operator to get it right from the start and understand why this is the best way. With no starting point or finishing point, this is simply the actions taken to pick up a load and then release it again. This can be into a stockpile, onto a vehicle, into a feed hopper or an item of plant, etc. so there are many variables to consider but all these variables will involve the same method with a little adjusting here and there.

4.2. Maneuvering the Wheeled Loading Shovel

Tight working environments can pose hazards in terms of damage to the plant, other vehicles, property, and worst of all, injury to yourself and others. Many damages can occur through collisions and crushing accidents. It is essential to keep a 360° awareness for these reasons. Never travel with a raised load, and always have a certain level of bucket spill to help weight distribution and visibility. It is also paramount to keep good traction and to avoid skidding at all costs. In previous sections, you have learned about the importance of the H Pattern for travel control and braking. This is a key factor in effective control and traction. When extra traction is needed, traveling in a lowered gear and keeping a higher RPM grin will prevent stalling. Stalling and loss of power is a common problem on automatic shovel transmissions. Always plan ahead and avoid sudden turns and motions which can lead to loss of control and cause sideways sliding. If you find yourself exiting a tight area onto a slope, always approach the slope straight on and travel across it rather than up or down. Cross grading is a term used to describe moving across the face of a slope and is a safer and more efficient method of slope travel and crossing.

This section on manoeuvring can also be paramount in certain environments. Some tips are provided below to help you in tight, muddy, snowy, icy, and hilly environments. Some of the skills you have already learned in the basics section, such as using the machine’s weight to aid traction and positioning the bucket to affect weight distribution, will be used here. The lesson will also refer back to previous sections to show how these motions and skills are linked. Remember, safety is always a priority, and avoid working in severe weather if not necessary. All risks must be constantly considered.

4.3. Operating in Different Environments

Cycling or carrying materials to be loaded in industrial and equestrian type buildings hold their own hazards. Awkward access, low headroom, and soft floors can all present problems. The operator must assess the environment and, if necessary, get the job modified or use a different machine.

On construction or demolition sites, the ground may be strewn with hidden hazards such as excavations, buried debris, or partially exposed services. The risks of tire damage and machine entrapment are high. It is essential that the operator knows the ground or has a good site layout plan and always drives with due regard to the conditions and any potential hazards.

The basic physics of wheeled vehicles dictates that they have poor traction and steering when moving on soft, loose, or steep ground. A loaded vehicle is more difficult to control than an unloaded one. When driving or maneuvering on slopes, the danger of tipping is very real. A loaded shovel is inherently unstable and can easily tip sideways or forward. Many fatal accidents involving wheeled loading shovels occur when the vehicle tips and traps or crushes the operator. Such accidents can often be the result of overconfidence or a simple error of judgment by the operator.

Operating a wheeled loading shovel safely, effectively, and efficiently without causing undue strain or damage to the machine or endangering personnel is an essential skill for operatives. Many accidents involving wheeled loading shovels occur as a result of the operator’s unfamiliarity with the machine, its limitations, or working environment. The risks can be significantly reduced by good, skillful driving and operating techniques.

5. Maintenance and Inspections

INSTRUMENTATION Test all gauges and warning lights by turning the ignition on. Remove any dirt/dust and wash if necessary.

INTERIOR Check the driver’s seat for any damage, adjusting as necessary. Wipe/wash any mud or other loose material from the floor. Blank off any open drain holes to prevent the ingress of material.

CAB Check that all loose objects are removed, which may affect the operation of controls. Check for any broken glass and, if necessary, arrange for repair. If used when fueling, ensure the fire extinguisher is replaced correctly.

The tasks below identify what and how to check/adjust/clean. This should be done prior to starting work with the machine, allowing faults to be identified in a safe and controlled environment and allowing time to rectify any problems before work commences.

A well-structured and consistent approach to maintaining the wheel loader is essential to ensure machine longevity, performance, and daily availability. Many of our customers work on a “one call” or “subcontract” basis, and downtime due to machine breakdown can have serious implications on the effectiveness and profitability of a contract. This can be significantly reduced by a systematic and disciplined approach to daily checks and regular routine maintenance tasks.

Daily Maintenance Tasks

5.1. Daily Maintenance Tasks

5.1.2. Cooling System Check the water level is between the max/min markers in the header tank. If the level is low, slowly top up the system through the filler cap to avoid airlocks forming. If water loss is still occurring, report the problem to site maintenance staff. A 50/50 mixture of antifreeze and water will give the required protection. This should be checked with an antifreeze tester. Clean any dirt/debris from the radiator (blow from the rear so that dirt is not forced through the core). Ensure there are no external leaks from hoses, joints, radiator, etc. These can be identified by a trail of dried coolant. Any internal leaks to the oil cooler or cylinder head gasket may be indicated by water in the engine oil. Check the color and consistency of the oil. If necessary, use the dipstick to identify water in the oil. Finally, visually inspect the fan blades and viscous fan drive (where fitted) for damage.

5.1.1. Tyre Inspection Ensure that tyres are inflated to the pressures given in the machine handbook. Inspect the tread and sidewalls for damage. Tyre faults should be dealt with immediately as failure of a tyre could result in a serious incident.

These are simple tasks which can be carried out at the end of a shift to ensure that the front end loader is functional and clean and can perform its designed tasks. (Remember to isolate and label any faults which you cannot repair and report them to site maintenance staff).

5.2. Regular Inspection Procedures

Structured procedure. Once daily maintenance tasks are complete, it is good practice to conduct pneumatic and fluid checks on the equipment. Pneumatic checks should be conducted using a gauge and inspection of the vehicle manual to check for correct pressure and inflate if necessary. A visual test can still be used to identify punctures or leaks, but for accurate identification, a water and soap solution should be applied to fittings. Leaks will be indicated by air bubbles in the solution. Fluid checks involve inspection of all fluid levels and top up where necessary. Developing a routine will help to ensure that no checks are overlooked and there are indications when to conduct repairs. For example, during the weekly greasing task, a point at which there is difficulty applying grease can signify a damaged bearing seal. Taking notes will also help to schedule in repair tasks. For example, if a hydraulic hose is identified as being worn and likely to fail, the replacement can be scheduled in during a quieter work period.

Before conducting any inspections, always park equipment on level ground, lower all attachments, and engage the parking brake. Turn off the equipment and allow it to cool. Keep a good supply of the appropriate tools available. Plastic tags or tape can be useful to mark items needing attention. Inspections should follow a sequence which will help to minimize task repetition while ensuring complete coverage.

5.3. Troubleshooting Common Issues

Engine will not start. Check items checked in starting the engine and retrace steps made during stalling. Check documents such as CPCS log book. Identification of timing of fault occurrence is essential. Check engine over for low compression. Visual inspection may produce evidence of head gasket, piston, or inlet/exhaust valve failure. Always refer to engine diagnostics for engine-related electrical faults. Voltage checks can be taken from relevant sensors. Eventual complete engine diagnosis should be undertaken by removing and stripping down the engine.

To properly troubleshoot a fault on any given machine, it is important to first locate the problem and then scrutinize the symptoms in a logical progression. Symptom and fault diagnosis should always be carried out in this manner. The troubleshooting checks have been compiled in this way to ensure they lead to a correct analysis. Always carry out standard checks prior to any diagnostic work. Always rectify any problems found or report them as soon as possible. Always record any faults and the steps taken to resolve them. This will help to build a knowledge bank and aid in the development of better diagnosis techniques and help prevent future occurrences of the same fault.

6. Emergency Procedures

Emergency procedures are an essential part of training that should not be overlooked. Should you be involved in or witness an accident, the outcome can be affected greatly by knowledge of both the working environment and the correct reaction to an emergency situation. Many fatalities and serious injuries have resulted from ineffective action following an incident, often through lack of knowledge and understanding. The cause of many fires in the workplace is not known. Whether the resultant damage is small or great, the outcome can be influenced by a quick and effective response at the early stages of the fire. It is important to understand your role in preventing fire and how you might be able to stop a small fire from escalating. The following information will act as a guide to safe evacuation and the correct use of fire fighting equipment at site. Knowledge of the fire alarm and fire assembly point is essential. Should you discover a fire, sound the alarm and notify all personnel and site offices. Ensure an unobstructed access to the fire for the fire brigade. Do not attempt to fight a fire unless you have been trained to do so and it is safe to proceed. A fire needs only three elements to sustain itself: heat, fuel, and oxygen. Removal of any one of these will cause the fire to extinguish. If it is safe to do so, removing the fuel source from the fire would be the best course of action. If this is not possible, shutting off oxygen by covering the fire with a fire blanket could be effective. The fire brigade should be called if a fire cannot be controlled or if there is any doubt as to whether it has been extinguished. Any information that might be useful to the fire brigade upon their arrival should be provided. This may include the location and type of fire, the substances involved, and any special site access instructions. The final act should be to ensure safe evacuation from the site by all personnel.

6.1. Responding to Fire Hazards

The fire triangle. Fire is a chemical reaction that needs three things to get started: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent. These three things have been drawn as a triangle that is used to indicate the ingredients necessary for a fire to occur. The fire will continue to burn if these three things are present. If it can remove any one of these three things, then it will prevent the fire from starting or continuing to burn. For example, pouring water on a fire will cool the heat and prevent combustion by soaking the fuel (providing the fuel does not float on top of the water and reignite later!). Some materials will burn more easily than others. For example, paper will burn more easily than steel. A material’s “combustibility” is often used to describe how easily it can burn. Everything will burn if the temperature is high enough. At very high temperatures, even materials that are described as non-combustible will give off gases that can burn. Phase One This is where combustion begins when a material is heated it off-gases. This phase does not involve any flames. Flames are visible glowing gas given off during combustion. At this point, if the material were to be removed from the heat source, then the combustion would stop and reignition would not occur until the next time it was heated. Phase Two. If the off-gases reach a particular temperature (depending on the material), then the gases will ignite, causing a flame. This is what most people think of as fire. When the original material has been completely turned into gas and has ignited, it will sustain the heat of combustion and continue to give off gases and burn.

6.2. Dealing with Accidents and Injuries

Serious accidents/injuries must be notified immediately to the site management and/or the emergency services by the quickest means available. Information to be given should include – location of incident, type of incident, number of casualties and type of injuries. At any time in the event of a serious accident or incident, the site manager may arrange to suspend the operation until suitable conditions are restored. Any accidents involving damage to shuttering or plant equipment are to be recorded in the relevant company’s plant report booklets. An entry should be made regardless of the cost or extent of the damage. This is to include incidents where damage is caused to others’ property. Any person injured must report to the corrective therapy unit, and supply chain workers are to ensure that the site manager receives a copy of the medical assessment form. If medical attention is not required, basic first aid/corrective therapy treatment is available from the mobile plant first aider. In the event of injury or damage to others property, the site manager is to report the incident to supply chain/service provider management. A decision will then be made to either submit an insurance claim or arrange private repair. In the event of a fatality on the site, the police must be notified immediately and the site manager should seek advice from the HSE.

7. Environmental Considerations

The main sources of airborne noise from powered mechanical equipment are the engine, transmission and the work tool, in this instance the shovel head and its bucket. Noise control methods assess the following in the stated order. Can the noisy equipment be replaced with quieter equipment? If it is to be used in the long term, can a retrofit or trade-up assembly be obtained to reduce noise? and can the noisy operation be isolated from the operator at the work site? The latter being low cost and generally the most effective method of control. This can range from repositioning the tool in the bucket to using different working techniques during manufacture at a design level. Old or new, all equipment when imported from a non-EU country must have a CE mark, which warrants that this product meets the European directives on safety and/or emissions. All new equipment must come with a certificate of conformity. This certificate states that the machine has been tested and passed the requirements of its prospective directives. Each member state has the power to police and penalize any equipment present on the market within its country, that has been proved to be placed on the market without the correct marking or documentation.

All worksites, particularly those near sensitive areas or residential properties, generate noise pollution. Effects of noise can lead to damage of hearing, interference with speech and verbal communication, annoyance and anxiety, changes in sleep patterns, increased pulse and blood pressure, and stress. This can be caused by a number of operations on site to the surroundings with the operation of the shovel being only one. Areas with low background levels of noise are deemed tranquil areas. These are never present as far as construction sites are concerned. Noise is measured in decibels (dB). Particular concern is shown to the wildlife where increase in their noise level can cause a change in their behaviour and physiology and can ultimately hinder their survival. Another group affected is the local residents to the site.

7.1. Minimizing Noise Pollution

Noise is generally a problem if it has to compete with background noise. Higher frequency noise is easier to screen out than lower frequency noise. A well-maintained machine will be quieter than a machine that has suffered mechanical damage due to poor maintenance or a machine that has had an inadequate maintenance schedule. If a diesel engine has lost compression in any of its cylinders, the firing impulse will no longer be even and this will tend to increase vibration and noise. Rubber tracks offer lower compaction and reduced noise pollution compared with steel tracks. Regularly greased and adjusted steel tracks, on the other hand, will be quieter than those that have been neglected. Any cutting component (bucket blade, dozer, grader, or surface miner) that is badly worn or blunt will tend to increase noise pollution. The most effective way of reducing noise pollution from cutting components is to use tungsten carbide tipped cutting tools. Modern, ergonomically designed ROPS and FOPS certified cabs fitted with air conditioning and effective heating provide an improved and safer working environment for the machine operator, and they are an effective way of reducing noise pollution. In the long term, the relocation of land-based plant to remote control operation will reduce noise pollution at the source and will completely eliminate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss for machine operators. In situations where noise pollution is unavoidable and hearing protection has to be worn, it is very important for employees to receive training and information on the correct use of hearing protection.

7.2. Preventing Soil and Water Contamination

It is possible to avoid soil and water contamination by implementing best management practice, applying an integrated approach of sediment management, erosion control, and site-specific design, and utilizing available guidance and regulations. By considering these resources during the planning stages of a project, adverse effects on the environment can be greatly reduced and in most cases completely eliminated. Failure to plan is planning to fail! Step-by-step pollution prevention as outlined in the pollution prevention guidelines can help to build effective, simple, and cost-efficient pollution controls into a project from the earliest planning stages.

To help protect the environment, a number of pollution control measures must be taken before and during earth moving operations. Failure to adhere to these measures can result in legal action against the employer, and in serious cases, a jail sentence or unlimited fine. Fines and penalties issued under the Water Resource Act 1991 and Environmental Protection Act 1990 are now so severe that any proven pollution of water supplies by silt runoff from construction sites could put either a contractor or the principal of a small company out of business.

Before starting any earth moving operation, it is essential to consider the effect that the work may have on the surrounding environment. This is true for all forms of construction work and can have serious legal and financial implications if responsibilities are ignored.

8. Legal and Regulatory Requirements

To simply operate a loading shovel or any other related plant machinery, you will need to have passed a basic training course to obtain a CPCS Trained Operator card. More advanced operators will need to take a practical and theory-based technical test, again to operate a specific machine. There are some exceptions to this rule, i.e., a public utilities worker digging holes in the highways doing less than 30 minutes occasional work, farmers, and those in the armed forces. For more information on current legislation and CPCS guidelines, visit [Link] and download HSE leaflet OC 280/15.

If you are going to operate a loading shovel, or any other form of mechanical plant machinery, you will need to be aware of all the legal requirements. This will be the case if you own, lease, hire or simply operate any machine on a public highway or construction site. It is the duty of the employer or person in control of the workplace to ensure that only those who are competent, trained and certified operate such machines.

8.1. Health and Safety Legislation

The Health and Safety at Work etc Act of 1974 (HSWA) is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the UK, and sets out the duties of all employers, self-employed, and employees for any matters concerned with safety and welfare at work. Specifically relating to construction sites, section 3(1) and (2) and section 4(1) and (2) incorporate the duties of employers and employees to ensure health and safety at work. Also under this piece of legislation is the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, these come under the HSWA and they are specifically for the construction industry, the regulations are designed to improve health and safety in the industry.

Health and safety are considered to be one of the most important legal requirements for any construction site within the UK. It is also considered to be a very expansive area of legislation as it covers the welfare at work for all activities, and promotes a healthy and safe workplace for all construction site employees. This includes giving detailed requirements on how employers should protect their employees from risks and accidents, these include stringent safety requirements on certain equipment and the prevention of specific activities.

8.2. CPCS A21 Certification Guidelines

o be eligible to attend a CPCS Technical Test, there is a requirement to have a achieved a CITB health, safety and environment (HS&E) test within the previous 2 years version. Your HS&E test achievement will be verified at the time of booking the technical test. Please ensure you have a form of photographic ID (in the same name as the HS&E test and relevant to the booking i.e. passport or driving licence etc) Failure to do so will result in the candidate not being able to sit the technical test.

9. Practical Assessments

In order to qualify for this training scheme, candidates must already have some experience of operating the Wheeled Loading Shovel. The training itself is designed to enable the candidate to reinforce their knowledge and concentrate on improving skills to the point of safe and proficient operation. To this end, the course is divided between classroom-based teaching and practical exercises. The courses themselves are designed to suit candidates of varying experience and ability. On the final day of the course, candidates are required to undertake a Theory Test, based on knowledge learned during the previous days. This is followed by a Practical Test which will take 20-30 minutes per candidate. The criteria for grading the tests and the conditions under which the candidate is expected to operate are outlined below. Practical assessments have been designed to ensure the candidate is able to demonstrate their ability to operate the Wheeled Loading Shovel safely and proficiently. These practical assessments cover swings and maneuvers with and without a load, loading trucks or hoppers and the completion of shut down and securing procedures. A methodology has been devised for scoring each part of the practical assessment and this has been broken down into A21 Practical Assessment Criteria. Two copies of the Practical Assessment Criteria will be provided at the time of booking the first practical assessment. A copy is for the instructor and the duplicate is for the candidate. This allows the candidate to see the standards to which they will be assessed and identify any areas where further practice is required.

9.1. Preparing for Practical Assessments

In order to prepare for the completion of the practical assessment in operating the Wheeled Loading Shovel, it is the nature of the beast, learning a new skill is always difficult. The key to success with a practical test is confidence and aptitude. The examiner will want to see that you have confidence in the action that you are performing and that safety is always at the forefront of your mind when completing an action. If you are not confident with the action you are performing, the chances are you will make a mistake which could lead to danger of the people around you, damage to the machine and the task not being completed to the required standard. Use the course syllabus, it should act as a final checklist of skills and knowledge that you should have attained during your training. Compare your knowledge and skills with experienced operators. Where differences occur, attempt to seek out training, which will allow you to carry out each of the items to a standard expected by experienced operators. This may involve consulting machinery manuals, supervisors and experienced plant operators. Always check and assess the ask the examiner in the case of any elements that are unclear.

9.2. Demonstrating Competency in Operating the Wheeled Loading Shovel

The 6 tasks are as follows: – Excavating and forming a heap with the bucket, then positioning the machine ready to load lorries. – Loading muck (a pile of loose material or waste) into a lorry and then leveling the area from where the muck was removed from. – Excavating and forming a pile of material to be loaded into lorries, then loading the material into the lorry and finally backfilling the hole from where the material was dug from. – Loading material from one level to another, then grading/leveling the area from where the material was moved from. – Excavating a trench, then creating a flat bottom at a set depth and finally backfilling the trench. – Loading material into a hopper, then stockpiling the material.

This part tests your operating abilities on a range of earth moving tasks. Be aware during the tasks the assessor will be marking you on your operating technique and safety procedures, not how well the tasks is completed. You will choose 4 from 6 tasks.

10. Written Examinations

Our CPCS A21 Wheeled Loading Shovel Course study materials include two written exams which the candidate must successfully pass. These exams are based on the knowledge content of the CPCS Technical Test. The exams consist of 15 questions and are multiple choice or short answer completion. One exam is the Core Skills Test which is a common feature for most CPCS categories. The second exam is a specific test based on the Wheeled Loading Shovel category. Both exams are conducted under closed book exam conditions and last a maximum of 30 minutes. The pass mark for each is set at 75%. If a candidate does not achieve the pass mark on either or both exams, it will be necessary for them to re-sit the exams after a period of further study has been undertaken. For the duration of the course and upon completion of the study of each in-course content module, we recommend candidates attempt the integrated knowledge review exercise. This will test knowledge gained from the study materials provided and the results should assist in identifying further study that may be required on any elements of the course.

10.1. Exam Preparation Tips

Revision for the test should be spread over as many weeks as possible. Students can only retain a limited amount of information in one go. Studies have shown that information which is studied and revisited over several sessions is retained better than information that is crammed in one long period. High frequency and shorter periods of revision are more effective than low frequency and long periods. A suggested approach would be little and often. Maybe 20-30 minutes each evening. This way the candidate is revising little and often, building up their knowledge over a long period, retaining it for the test duration and essential information at the work-face. An evening is usually the best time to revise as after a day’s work the plant operator will not want to waste a weekend day stuck inside revising.

The Technical Tests are multiple choice questions typically with a pass mark of 80%. This allows the candidate to hazard a logical guess in the case that they cannot answer the question. Note that there are no penalties for wrong answers. Questions are set from the Key Learning Objectives for each module. Therefore it is important to have revised these and revised the Specification.

Since April 2008 the CPCS Technical Tests have taken the form of a verbal theory test and a written test. If the candidate has a reasonable level of numeracy it is usually best to take the written test as these questions are typically simpler to understand and answer. In order to be exempt from this the candidate should phone CITB and request the pass papers for the written equivalents of the numeracy test.

Find out what the exam entails. The candidate should contact CITB-ConstructionSkills (as early as possible prior to the test date) on 0344 994 4777 for past papers/exam structure and the likely content of the technical test relevant to the category of plant they wish to achieve.

Formal exams are often an unnerving prospect, but with the right preparation they can be a lot less daunting. The CPCS Technical Test is no exception. Below are some ideas that may help you prepare for sitting any sort of written exam.

10.2. Understanding Exam Format and Content

A written exam is to be undertaken at the end of the A21 course. The exam consists of an hour-long touch screen multiple-choice paper, to test the candidates’ knowledge and understanding of the content delivered throughout the duration of the course. Candidates are strongly advised to visit the CITB test centre prior to sitting the exam in order to undertake the practice test which can be found here. Further details of the exam can be found in the candidate specimen exam and the A21 Written Test Paper Specification. The candidate specimen provides an overview of the layout of the exam, advising the use of the functionality keys and navigation tools. It also notes the types of questions, with differing styles including “drag and drop” and “hot spot”. It also advises that all questions gather at least one mark and failure to answer will result in a lost opportunity for marks. Required pass rates for the exam can be found in the A21 supporting document.

11. Course Completion and Certification

Candidates will be able to: – Name and explain the purpose of principal components, the basic construction, controls and terminology. – Conform with manufacturers requirements as per the operators handbook and other appropriate official publications. – Undertake all pre-use checks. – Configure and set for travel and work ready duties. – Travel and manoeuvre the machine from point to point including on an incline loaded and unloaded. – Explain precautions to be taken for underground and overhead services and other site-specific hazards. – Position the machine for loading from a stockpile and carry out the task. – Sort and load loose materials into transport equipment. – Place the machine in an out of service condition.

Successful completion of the CPCS A21 Wheeled loading shovel course will enable candidates to: – Operate the machine as safely and efficiently for transporting and loading loose materials. – Fit ancillary attachments. – Carry out minor adjustments and routine servicing procedures. – Understand the capabilities of the machine and any relevant safety precautions.

11.1. Meeting Course Requirements

The objectives of the course can be found in the evidence of assessment records and in the course practical assessment. For direct entry (experienced) candidates, the requirements are very much the same, only they must have a minimum of 40 hours practical and theory experience in operating a Wheeled Loading Shovel. Experienced operators can have their skills tested in just one or two days, whereas those with little or no experience would be best advised to go on the full course. On completion of the course, the tester will have sufficient knowledge about the candidate’s level of experience and should recommend either a level 2 or 16 credit exam. After such assessment, it would be necessary for the candidate to do a knowledge check to confirm the course dates to book an exam (no later than 12 weeks following the course). This is to ensure that the candidate is taking the exam while their knowledge on this subject area is still fresh.

11.2. Receiving CPCS A21 Certification

Any experienced operator of a 360-degree excavator can go directly to the A58 (B) course, which is purely a testing course, to quickly get the A58 Red Trained Operator card up to 2 years prior and without having to undertake a training course. 2 A58 (B) places can be booked together with a test-only duration of 1 day using the same machine type. Note: Experience must be relevant to the tasks and machine type in which you are taking the tests for, and it is the candidate’s competence and not simply the number of years in a seat, which will determine whether a course or testing only might be suitable.

There are three modes of entry onto this course: If you have limited or no experience of operating a 360-degree excavator, or have a little experience and have received no formal training, you will undertake the A58 course with its 10 days of training (5 days of which are one to one with a trainer). This is a novice course and is the best course to start with. After this course, it is recommended that operators go onto the A58 (A) course with a further 10 days of training and have the technical tests taken together for the most current Blue Competent Operator card. An experienced operator may skip the A58 course and go directly to the A58 (A) testing.

Candidates must have passed the Health, Safety and Environment touch screen test within the 2 years prior to the technical test. It should be noted that the HSE test is a mandated prerequisite to the technical test. However, candidates may book their technical test up to 2 years prior to taking the HSE test.