CPCS A09 Forward Tipping Dumper Course

1. Introduction

Below is a list of things you will cover during your few days of training: – Health and safety legislation as it applies to plant operators – Understanding the capabilities, purposes, and limitations of each machine – Being able to locate and identify the major components of the machine and explain their functions – Understanding operator responsibilities when operating construction plant (for example, END’s and regulations) – Understanding what a typical construction plant induction training encompasses – Undertaking all pre-use, operational (including shut down), and post-use plant machinery checks – Preparing and readying the up prime movers and plant for site and road travel – Traveling over rough, undulating ground, steep inclines, and level surfaces – Maneuvering in confined spaces, including the use of rear guidance, and understanding all associated hazards to operators and personnel – Understanding the principles of the effect of load, load integrity, and knowing how to segregate and distribute various materials. Completing all tasks in a designated time – Lifting and transporting various materials and loads from ground level, up to given heights, and discharging in isolation or into dumper trucks or dump trailers – Understanding the loading and unloading procedures for machine transportation. This includes loading at suspending stages and end of shift/working day – Keeping within safe working parameters and not endangering surrounding personnel or site work – Understanding the need to preserve the ground conditions when operating all types of machinery

The CPCS A09 Forward Tipping Dumper Course is a 2-day course for novice operators. The course includes a training and testing programme delivered through theoretical input and practical training. On successful completion of the technical tests, the trainee will be issued with a CPCS Trained Operator Card (red card). This course is run through the CPCS – Construction Plant Competence Scheme. Our CPCS tester has over 30 years of experience within the construction industry and is a registered tester with CAA and Cskills. This CPCS qualification is now a mandatory requirement for all operators working in this field. This course runs throughout the year at various locations, so please check our Course Dates for your nearest venue.

1.1. Course Overview

This course is designed to provide candidates with a good understanding of the scope of the duties under the CPCS A09 Forward Tipping Dumper category. It also includes an insight into health and safety and awareness of the dangers of not abiding by the Health and Safety Acts. This is a classroom-based module using a mixture of video and discussion. It is ideal for those who are experienced operators to help confirm they are carrying out the correct procedures in their everyday tasks or for the novice who is seeking information prior to gaining their dumper ticket. This is a short course to sit but with a very important outcome. This theory training dumper course covers the HSE drivers’ expectations and health and safety relating to the use of the forward tipping dumper. This course is a mix of classroom-based theory sessions and practical demonstrations/exercises. On the theory side, it is looking to give the candidate a full understanding of the requirements of the Health & Safety Acts and the Construction Plant Competence Scheme in relation to operating a Forward Tipping Dumper, along with knowledge of other current regulations affecting construction plant. On the practical side, it is aiming to teach the candidate how to carry out a pre-shift inspection of the machine and what to look for, how to correctly mount and dismount the machine, and to carry out a series of tasks to show their operating abilities.

1.2. Importance of the CPCS A09 Forward Tipping Dumper Course

The course is designed to provide the individual with the necessary practical and theoretical knowledge and skills to enable the user to operate the machine and pass the NPORS or CSCS theory and practical dumper tests. This will allow the operator to gain their red trained operator card. This course is intended for new operators with little or no experience of operating a Forward Tipping Dumper. This course is run over a maximum of 5 days with a test on the final day. This course can take up to a maximum of 4 learners. Although there is a mixture of experienced and non-experienced operators to ensure ample practice and theory. This course is designed to give the candidate a good understanding of health and safety issues and awareness of the prevention of accidents, enabling the candidate to safely operate and maintain a Forward Tipping Dumper.

1.3. Course Objectives

At the end of the CPCS A09 Forward Tipping Dumper Course, delegates should be aware of the limitations placed on the operator by the Health and Safety at Work Act, other current relevant regulations, and the Approved Code of Practice (ACoP). They should also be able to carry out a pre-use check, and be able to judge whether the dumper is safe to use. They should be aware of the need for completing the necessary documentation and knowing its contents. They should be able to operate the dumper safely and efficiently, from a range of typical tasks to a high standard. With regards to loading dumpers, they should be able to assess the area, ensuring it is safe and carry out the task to a high standard. They should also be able to extract relevant information, which has been covered and apply it to ongoing and future situations with a view to continual improvement in safety and efficiency.

2. Safety Procedures

It is a legal requirement for all employers to provide PPE for their employees. PPE may be supplied by the employer, but it would be the responsibility of the employee to wear and use it when necessary. The construction and allied industries require a vast range of personal protective equipment. The type of PPE provided will vary from job to job, but should at a minimum provide protection for the head, eyes, ears, hands, and feet. For dumper operators, this will include steel toe-capped boots, a hard hat, and gloves. High visibility jackets provide added safety when moving plant machinery around site and are becoming essential when working on or near public roads. Units of the dumped load are used as the measure of what can cause harm to operatives, i.e. if the load being moved is greater than the mass of a man, then it is considered dangerous and a banksman should assist the operation. In this case, the operator would need to wear a suitable safety helmet to protect themselves. The helmet should be of a type specifically designed to offer protection against injury to the head in any situation where there is a risk of falling or flying objects.

2.1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Five key areas highlighted in Section 2, Safety Procedures, within the course handbook are Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), Preparing the Work Area, Safe Operation of the Forward Tipping Dumper, Emergency Procedures, and Safety Questions. These areas are designed to ensure the safety of the operative and on-site personnel, safety and protection of others, the health and safety of all personnel within the construction and allied industries, and to ensure that health and safety are considered in a day-to-day working environment.

2.1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) will form an essential part of the course as we need to ensure that the risks of injury to operators and other site personnel are kept to a minimum. The instructor will start by giving a classroom-based explanation of the need and requirement to wear PPE when operating plant machinery. The instructor will explain different types of PPE and their relevance or requirement to the specific tasks of operating a forward tipping dumper. This will lead to the group discussion suggesting different types of PPE and the tasks to which they are related. The instructor will then ask the group what type of PPE they think is the most essential when operating a forward tipping dumper and ask them about different experiences where they have worn PPE and felt vulnerable without it. This will lead to a run-through of a scenario where an operator might carry out maintenance on a dumper on his own, not wearing any PPE and not telling anyone where he is or what he is doing. This will then lead to the input of different types of PPE and a quick explanation of the need and requirement of each one. This will then lead to a group-based task, which will involve splitting different types of PPE into pairs or groups, then assigning a pair/group to a specific task of operating a forward tipping dumper and justifying their reasons for choosing that particular PPE. It is important to cover PPE early as there may be operators who are inexperienced and unaware of the different types of PPE and tasks the method of which it protects.

2.2. Preparing the Work Area

Safe access and egress to the dumper should be provided at all times. This includes three points of contact on the dumper while getting on or off. If this is not possible, then suitable access equipment should be used. Caution should be taken when climbing up or down as this is when a large percentage of accidents occur. If visibility is poor due to dust, fog, or darkness, artificial lighting may be required, and the area should be cordoned off to avoid any entry from unauthorized personnel.

Before using a forward tipping dumper, it is important that the work area is prepared to minimize the risk of an accident. It is recommended that a safe method of work is carried out during this operation. It is important to be aware of any underground services, which could be damaged during the tipping of the dumper. If the dumper is to be used on a public road, then a suitable road permit should be obtained, and it is important to remember that this type of dumper is not designed for use on the public highway or any dual carriageway. The use of a dumper should be avoided in adverse weather conditions if the terrain is too hazardous, for example, steep or icy ground. Before starting work, all personnel involved in the operation of the dumper must be briefed on the safe method of how the work is to be carried out.

2.3. Safe Operation of the Forward Tipping Dumper

Having obtained site supervisor permission, now is the time to tip the load. This action requires the dumper to be accurately positioned in a safe and level area. The machine should be put into reverse tip position, and the operator should leave the seat. They should then remove the ignition key and take it with them. Ensure that the skip is raised to a sufficient height for full discharge of the load. Remember that tipping should not be carried out on any slope or gradient.

When traveling with a load, the dumper should always be driven in the lowered position with the load traveling uphill where possible. This will help to reduce the risk of the dumper overturning, which in some cases has resulted in operator fatality. Under no circumstances should the dumper be driven across a slope or gradient. The load should not exceed the safe working load of the dumper. A load that is too heavy or positioned too high at the front of the skip can cause the dumper to become unstable when tipping, with potentially fatal consequences.

It is preferable that the discharge of materials takes place in a designated area where other site workers or members of the public will not be in close proximity to the dumper. Before beginning any operation, it is important to plan the task and have a clear idea of how it will be carried out. This will help operators to avoid any hazardous situations that may arise. A site risk assessment should be carried out prior to any work taking place. This will help to identify any potential hazards or risks in the work area and enable them to be removed or avoided.

Safe practice when operating any kind of machinery is essential, but when this activity takes place in a public area, the need for a safe method of work is greatly increased. The operation of a forward tipping dumper has one of the highest incident/accident rates in the construction and mineral extraction industries. The majority of these incidents/accidents result from an unsafe system of work or operator error, rather than a mechanical fault with the machine. It is also worth noting that these types of incidents/accidents often result in serious injury or fatality. This form of dumper is most commonly used for moving materials short distances on site and then discharging them. It is vital that these actions take place in a safe manner.

2.4. Emergency Procedures

In emergency situations, know how to stop the dumper. Anybody using the dumper should know where the stop button or switch is located. Be familiar with the adequate stopping distance. The brake systems on all dumpers stop the wheels from turning but do not necessarily stop the dumper moving. Do not turn the dumper over any further when it is about to tip. This could cause the dumper to go past the point of no return and put you in a dangerous situation. Do not jump out of the seat in an emergency; always keep the seat belt fastened and use the ROPS or FOPS structure. You are more likely to hurt yourself or others by jumping from the dumper, then if you stay seated. Make sure that everyone on site knows where to find you. If the situation is really serious and there is a risk of the dumper rolling, then always travel with the roll bar in the raised position. Always apply the parking brake, stop the engine, and remove the key when leaving the dumper unattended.

3. Operating the Forward Tipping Dumper

It is important to recognize that the traveling speeds of different makes of dumpers will not always correspond to the recommended speeds for uphill and downhill travel with loads, and most modern machines being fitted with power shuttle transmissions, this will affect the braking effect of the dumper on slopes. The operator must be aware of the differences and adjust his operating techniques accordingly.

The operator should know the purpose and function of each control. He should satisfy himself in the safe operation of all the controls prior to starting the machine and should understand the effect the controls may have on stability, loading, or on the machine traversing up or down slopes. The operator should refer to the operator’s manual and understand fully the controls and instruments on the particular machine he is operating.

The dumper operator has a great responsibility to himself, fellow workers, and the general public who may be in the vicinity. The operator must satisfy himself that he has the knowledge and ability to operate the machine in a competent manner. There are no substitutes for common sense and a good understanding of the principles of the operation of the machine.

3.1. Machine Controls and Functions

The layout and controls of the forward tipping dumper may vary due to the make and model of the machine, therefore it is necessary to locate and identify the various controls. The majority of dumpers will have the driving and engine controls on the right hand side of the operator and the skip controls to the left hand side. Driving controls will consist of either levers or a steering wheel; to drive forwards the left control/steering wheel should be pushed/moved forward and to reverse the action should be pulled/moved backwards. Usually dumper skips are operated using levers, to tip the skip the left control lever should be moved forward and to lower the skip back down it should be pulled backwards. The right control lever will control the opening and closing of the skip, again push forward will open the skip and pulling it backwards will close it. On most modern dumpers there will also be a flashing beacon and an alarm system for when reversing, these are mainly health and safety features and may not be dealt with on the CPCS test. The assurance of knowing that the operator uses the controls in an efficient and safe manner will rely heavily on whether the operator is using the correct technique for loading, travelling and unloading with the dumper. Although this may seem straightforward it is still very easy for an untrained operator to cause an accident or injury to themselves or others.

3.2. Loading and Unloading Techniques

When determining how to transport materials, the operator must consider the following steps. Before transporting material, it is essential to ensure the material is properly secured within the skip. When traversing over uneven or sloped ground, material may become dislodged. When travelling up or down slopes, the skip should be positioned as close to the face as possible to avoid material falling out the front or back. If the material starts to shift in the hopper, the operator should stop immediately, lower the material to the ground, and reposition the dumper in order to re-secure the load. Once the load is secure, the operator must consider the travel path – it may be necessary to traverse over unsuitable ground or pass through confined spaces. If this is the case, the operator should travel with the skip empty and transport the material using a shovel. Finally, it may be necessary to unload and transport materials in an area where a dumper cannot access. When this is the case, it may be more appropriate to lift and transport material using a lifting attachment and a site dumper. Articulated and hydrostatic dumpers have superior traction and stability and are best equipped for loose muddy ground. Static skip dumpers have poor traction and are more suited to firm level ground for short distance travel. The skip on a hydrostatic dumper can be hydraulically positioned, making it easier to load and unload materials on slopes. Static skip dumpers should avoid loading and unloading on slopes wherever possible, and the skip should be positioned parallel to the slope when loaded or parked. Loaded skips should never be towed to move material as this is unsafe and can cause damage to the dumper. Towing is only appropriate for dragging an empty skip a short distance to dispose of unwanted material.

3.3. Maneuvering and Traveling Safely

Drive slowly when approaching a bank or an area where the surface is not even. Be careful when articulating as this will affect the stability of the machine. The most common cause of accidents when using dumpers is a tip over, whether caused by driving up or down steep slopes or attempting to turn on the same. Steer uphill when travelling with a load, and downhill when travelling with no load. Be very careful when using the machine in reverse. If the site allows it, ensure that site dumpers have a one-way system, and if this is not possible, then ensure that all other workers are aware of the dumper’s movements. Always use the seatbelt when operating the dumper. If traveling a long distance with a loaded skip in difficult conditions, then it may be necessary to travel in first gear. This will limit the amount that the skip will slide and will give better control of the machine.

3.4. Operating on Different Terrains

If it is necessary to travel and tip on ground that is very steep, boggy, or has a high risk of slippage, special arrangements may need to be made. It may be necessary to restrict or even prevent the use of dumpers in these areas.

When working on wet ground or loose/wet material, traction can become a problem. Four-wheel drive dumpers have excellent performance on most types of ground, but in severe conditions, even these machines can become stuck. In these situations, it may be more effective to travel with an empty load and transfer material to a machine or stockpile that is on firmer ground.

The most common problem encountered when tipping is that of a sideways shift, which can be caused when the downhill wheels run onto material that is lower than the other wheels. This causes the dumper to become unstable, and if the weight in the skip is being discharged at the same time, it is highly likely that the dumper will overturn. To avoid this situation, you should always try to ensure that the dumper is level across the chassis. Where there is a defined edge or a significant change in gradient, you should always aim to tip facing up or across the slope, never downhill. Tip heads and run-off ramps are the most effective way of achieving this, and they also provide a safe and efficient means of forming an excavation.

You will probably be required to travel and tip on a variety of different types of ground. When working on any form of slope, extra caution is required. The design of these dumpers offers little in the way of resistance to tipping, so the effects of a sideways shift can be sudden and dramatic.

3.5. Best Practices for Efficient Operation

**Loading** Load the skip slowly and progressively with the heaviest material being placed near the front. Avoid overloading. Try to fill the skip to its intended capacity, no more, no less. Loading more than the intended capacity will affect the machine’s stability and performance. It is better to make an extra journey than risk overloading. Employing a banksman can also help to improve loading and communication between the dumper operator and the excavator/loading shovel driver. Always travel with the body of the dumper facing uphill and raise the body to its fullest extent before discharging the load (Note: this is not always possible when working in confined spaces).

Some specific operating techniques and best practices to do the following tasks:

To be able to operate the machine effectively and efficiently, we can follow some guidelines and best practices, some of which have been mentioned in the earlier sections. Always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations which can be found in the operator’s manual. A safe and efficient operation will also require a good understanding and judgment of the machine’s capabilities and limitations as well as the knowledge of the job site and the task at hand. Finally, a sound physical and mental condition is required to ensure safe and efficient working practices.

4. Maintenance and Inspections

Pat will introduce new maintenance records for the machine. He will then discuss routine inspections of the machine. These can be in the form of a daily check before use and a more detailed periodic inspection every few weeks, ensuring that the dumper is in good working order. Pre-use checks usually involve walking around the machine and taking note of any visible defects and damage. Pat will ensure that operatives are aware of what to look for during this, such as breakages, leaks, loose components, and wear to certain parts. If any defects are found, the operator should report these immediately to a supervisor. A more detailed inspection may involve checking and testing certain parts such as the brakes or lights. If any areas of concern are found during these tests, machine repair can be planned before the issue becomes too severe. Maintenance activities to be undertaken to prevent the machine from developing faults will be identified during these routine inspections. Pat will ensure that planned maintenance tasks are scheduled and that time is allocated to allow these tasks to be completed in full. This may involve taking the dumper out of service for short periods of time; however, this will be less disruptive than downtime caused by an unexpected machine failure. A rate of wear or failure will be identified for all parts of the machine so that all components can be replaced before a problem arises. This will prevent a minor problem from developing into a major failure, which may cause damage to other components. New parts and maintenance activities are to be entered onto the maintenance records, allowing easy comparison to the machine’s expected service life and identification of any improvement in availability and reliability.

4.1. Daily Inspections and Checks

Refer to the operator’s manual for the dumper for any specific checks recommended by the manufacturer. Ensure that the fuel and oil supplied meets the minimum requirements agreed with the fuel company. Engage the parking brake and start the engine, check that the air pressure warning light goes out. Turn the steering wheel fully left and right, there should be no unusual noises and the steering movement should be smooth. The warning buzzer should sound, indicating that the direction indicators are operational. Carry out a visual inspection of the dumper ensuring that there are no loose or missing bolts and that there is no damage to any structural components. Any defects should be reported and the dumper tagged out of service, oil levels should be checked whilst the engine is off and the dumper is on a level surface. If there is a significant amount of dirt on the filler cap area, clean before removing to prevent contamination of the oil. Add the correct type of oil as necessary. Accurate oil levels are essential, however it is important not to overfill. This would lead to oil leaks and unnecessary cost. Check that the engine has adequate cooling water. This is done by visually inspecting the level in the header tank. The level should be between the minimum and maximum markers. Always allow the engine to cool before removing the filler cap as pressurized systems can cause hot water to eject from the filler neck and cause scalding. Top up if necessary but keep in mind that in cooler conditions, the engine may require less cooling water. Clean the radiator frequently to prevent overheating.

4.2. Preventive Maintenance

Having a regular service and maintenance plan is essential, and keeping a detailed maintenance record can highlight to the operator any trends in machine breakdown or component failure. Using contractors to carry out major service work can be costly and often not practical. Training a maintenance employee on the specific tasks may be a better option, and using him for machine downtime days can save money and prevent backlogs of work. These tasks can include changing and monitoring of fluids using recommended filters and oils, adjusting and applying torque settings to nuts and bolts that may have loosened, and any general and more specific repair work. Regular work on the steering, transmission, and braking systems can prevent more serious component failure in these areas. Fluid checks and greasing should be done at regular and planned intervals. Care should be taken to ensure the right specification of grease is used. Too much on a component can cause as much damage as not enough. Use of a handheld grease gun can often be an effective way to control the quantity used.

Daily checks and inspections are an essential part of preventative maintenance and should be carried out in conjunction with them. They are designed to pick up any degradation in the machine’s condition in order that remedial work can be planned and carried out during a downtime period. All safety equipment needs to be inspected (and replaced if damaged) at regular intervals. It should be noted that warranties can be invalid if maintenance of the equipment does not meet the supplier’s recommendations. Regular washing can prevent deterioration of the paint and bodywork, and giving the whole machine a good ‘going over’ and carrying out any repairs recommended on the daily inspection checks can often highlight any potential problem areas.

4.3. Troubleshooting Common Issues

General loss of performance may be due to a high return spring force setting cutting in the blade at too light a load, engine wear, or a transmission problem. A high force setting can be felt by trying to hold the blade up while traveling unloaded. Full performance test details are in the Dumper Operator Manual. If the problem is intermittent yet persistent, loads of information can be provided to the maintenance team by arranging a partial strip down and inspection to take place immediately after the problem occurs.

Uneven or excessive tire wear could be contributed to by incorrect tire pressures or damage to the front or rear axle. The dump cylinder possibly leaking oil internally will permit the skip to creep or slide downhill while driving. If a function or system is suspected of being at fault, a pressure test with a gauge should be taken from the appropriate hydraulic circuit.

Again, the operator is advised to refer to their Dumper Operator Manual. If unable to rectify these problems, they should contact their supervisor and inform them of the situation.

Power, poor off-road mobility, and excessive rear tire wear. These problems may be due to: – Worn or damaged hydraulic pump, which does not build up sufficient pressure to drive the Dumper (a pressure gauge test can confirm this). – Various problems with the transmission, including incorrect oil level, worn brakes, clutch plates, or drive plate for the transfer box. – High back pressure in the dump circuit (this can be checked by putting a pressure gauge onto the tank line while driving forwards; it should not exceed the relief pressure in the component being tested). – Rear tip dump circuit not fully shifting from drive to dump mode.

4.4. Proper Storage and Security of the Machine

One of the most common (and costly) mistakes in owning and operating construction equipment is improper storage – this can happen at all stages of the equipment’s life. Machines and equipment should be stored in a clean, dry environment. If indoor storage is not available, equipment should be covered to protect it from the elements, and periodically moved to prevent tire or track damage from prolonged parking. When machines are stored outside, rainwater should be drained or wiped from the control console and seats. Steel components such as blade cylinders, buckets, and attachments are susceptible to rust – these should be coated in a rust preventative, and have a piece of plastic or rubber placed between the ground and attachment to allow air circulation and prevent the formation of condensation. Small equipment and tools should be removed from the machine to prevent theft or operator confusion at the time of the next use. Trailered machines should be parked on a flat surface with the hitch and tongue resting on a block to prevent theft, and the trailer wheels should be chocked. This will also prevent unnecessary tire wear. All machines and equipment should be periodically accessed to prevent rodent infestation, and to prevent minor issues from becoming major, costly problems. This can also serve as a pre-storage inspection to determine what maintenance should be done before the machine is used again. A key component to proper storage of equipment is record keeping. A log book for each machine should be used to record where and how the machine is stored, and what service, maintenance, or repairs are done during storage time. This will ensure that the machine is in proper working order when it is time to use it again, and prolong the overall life and condition of the machine.